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Traumatic Brain Injuries

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by

Steven Gauerke

on 20 April 2010

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Transcript of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Glasgow Coma Scale Children 0-4 Teenagers 65+ Seniors 1.5 MILLION Suffer Yearly 8x more than breast cancer 34x the number of new HIV/AIDS cases 50,000 Deaths Yearly 80,000 - 90,000 suffer long-term Estimate 5.3 MILLION 2% permenant TBI MILD
13-15 SEVERE
3 MODERATE
9-12 Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Unconsciousness for 30 minutes or less
Loss of memory before or after event
Alteration in metal state at time of accident Other Symptoms headache
vomiting
nausea
lack of motor coordination
dizziness
difficulty balancing lightheadedness
blurred vision
ringing of ears
bad taste
fatigue or lethargy
changes in sleep patterns Emotional Symptoms behavioral or mood changes
confusion
trouble with memory
trouble with concentration
trouble paying attention
trouble thinking Moderate & Severe Brain Injury Moderate TBI Defined: a brain injury resulting in
a loss of conciousness from 20 minutes
to 6 hours and a Glasgow Coma Scale
score of 9-12 Severe TBI Defined: a brain injury resulting in
a loss of consciousness of greater
than 6 hours and a Glasgow Coma Scale
rating of 3-8 Symptoms vomiting
loss of bowel control
coma
seizures
paralysis of limbs
slurred speech
loss of spinal fluids Focal & Diffuse
Brain Injury FOCAL Specific Areas DIFFUSE Widespread DIFFUSE


INJURIES Widespread damage to white matter
Not easily detected DIFFUSE


INJURIES Four Types Diffuse Axonal
Diffuse Hypoxic/anoxic/ischemic
Diffuse Swelling
Diffuse Vascular DIFFUSE


INJURIES Diffuse Axonal Diffuse axonal injury is
widespread damage to the white matter of the brain that usually results from acceleration/deceleration types of injury.This type of injury causes shearing the axons that traverse junctions between areas of different density. The damage to the axons disrupts the neural processes that allow one neuron to communicate with another. It is difficult to detect because the damage is microscopic. FOCAL


INJURIES Caused by physical force
Damage to specific area
Open or Closed injury FOCAL


INJURIES Closed Head Injury skull is pressed into brain Open Head Injury skull is pierced or punctured An injury to the brain caused by the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or by an object piercing the skull and entering the brain tissue. 230,000 people are hospitalized and survive FRONTAL LOBE The frontal lobes are involved in motor
function, problem solving, spontaneity,
memory, language, initiation, judgment,
impulse control, and social and sexual
behavior.

One of the most common effects of
frontal damage can be a dramatic change
in social behavior. Damage to the parietal lobe affects a person’s sensation and orientation. If a person damages one side of the front of the parietal lobe, it will cause numbness and impair sensation on the opposite side of the body. If the person damages the back of the parietal lobe, they lose the ability to tell right from left and have problems with calculations and drawing. Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Damage to the temporal lobe impairs the memory for sounds, shapes, and words. Occipital Lobe The occipital lobe controls the processing of visual information. If both sides of the occipital lobe are injured, the person cannot see, even though the eyes are functioning normally.
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