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Japanese Internment Program vs. the Holocaust
Transcript of Japanese Internment Program vs. the Holocaust
How the Event Was Viewed by Outsiders
Hunger, starvation, and malnutrition were the cause for a large number of deaths in concentration camps because the amount given to the prisoners was only enough to keep them alive. ("Meals and Food").
Both groups were given small rations of food. The people were provided inadequate nutrition, which interfered with peoples' right of free life.
The Treatment of Prisoners
"The food was tasteless and unappetizing"(Su 13),
"A cook reached into a dishpan full of canned sausages and dropped two onto my plate with his fingers. Another man gave me a boiled potato and a piece of butterless bread" (Su 13).
How the Event Was Viewed by Outsiders
By: Shehan Fonseka, Nancy Vigil, and Youstina Youssef
Japanese Internment Program
The Wartime Civil Control Administration
The Failure of Military
"Centers were built in remote deserts, plains, and swamps of seven states; Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming" where they were in constant exposure to sand storms. Their isolation is a direct violation of their natural right of pursuit of happiness (We Had About One Week).
The WCCA oversaw the construction and went to great measures to make the camps seem "Japanese." Seemingly ignorant to the fact that 2/3 of all prisoners were
citizens and only 1/3 were Japanese aliens who identified with such traditional Japanese scenery. This stereotyping is demeaning of the population and a violation of their natural right of liberty.
It forced 100,000 Japanese-Americans and Japanese aliens to give away their possessions, and eventually, their dreams of success and prosperity in America.
"A military policeman shot and killed James Wakasa near Topaz's barbed wire fence on April 11, 1943" (World War II).
Failed to protect the homes that they forcefully made the Japanese temporarily give away.
"A Japanese family returning home from a relocation center camp in Hunt, Idaho, found their home and garage vandalized with anti-Japanese graffiti and broken windows in Seattle, Washington, on May 10, 1945" (World War II).
Declared innocent Japanese-Americans and aliens a threat to national security without evidence to support its claim.
The population was denied their right for due process of law and were automatically declared guilty of espionage and sabotage despite that "during the course of World War II, 10 Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, but not one of them was of Japanese ancestry" (U.S. Approves).
"[Schools were] suffering from supply shortages and a high variance in teaching quality"(Su 2).
"Schools were bereft of basic supplies and equipment, rudimentary and poorly organized"(Su 2).
"Officials assigned [families] family numbers to replace their family names"(Su 12).
The internees were housed in military style barracks, each one housing several families. There was no privacy and the barracks were barely furnished (Su 16).
The Treatment of Prisoners
The Failure of Military
How the Event Was Viewed by Outsiders
The Violations of the Military
The Treatment of Prisoners
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, other countries took an initiative similar to that of the United States:
Evacuated and imprisoned the population
This is a violation of their natural right of liberty.
Destroyed or allowed the destruction of property and other possessions
This is a violation of their natural right of property
Killed some or a mass of the population
This is a direct infringement of their natural right of life.
Families and their Residencies
Both lived in military style barracks, taking away their privacy and natural right to own personal property.
In the Japanese internment camps, families were given family numbers instead of surnames and during the Holocaust, the Jews were stripped of their names and given numbers as an identity. This was a humiliating reality that represented the liberty that was taken away from them.
The Nazi Party
Anti-Asian sentiment was already present in Canada about 70 years prior to World War II because of the fewer amount of jobs available due to Asian immigrants; whites would therefore have a lower standard of living as fear arose that Japanese work ethic would overthrow the province of British Columbia (Bailey).
With the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 along with the Japanese capture of Hong Kong on December 18, 1941, 2,000 Canadian soldiers were killed (Bailey).
On January 8, 1942, a conference was held in Ottawa, Canada to discuss the "Japanese problem"; federal cabinet minister of British Columbia Ian Mackenzie would come to the conclusion that the white population would riot if Japanese aliens are not interned, so the conference would result in work camps for Japanese Canadians (Bailey).
On September 22, 1988, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney gave a formal apology along with the package of $21,000 to the Japanese Canadians who were interned, a month after U.S. President Ronald Reagan's similar gestures towards Japanese Americans (Bailey).
With the worst racism ever experienced by Japanese Americans in the history of the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor came the global reach that U.S. anti-Japanese racism had on Latin America (Tsuha).
The kidnapping by the United States of 2,200 Japanese Latin Americans and their placing into concentration camps would allow the U.S. an easier time in prisoner exchange programs as the U.S. would not have to deal with violating the rights of any Japanese Americans (Tsuha).
After the war ended, many Japanese Latin Americans could not return to their homes in Latin America and would either return or be deported back to Japan (Tsuha).
For Peru, the Peruvian government was strongly opposed to having such individuals and families return to the country (Tsuha).
While the Japanese American Redress movement in 1988 under the Civil Liberties Act apologized to and provided $20,000 for all Japanese Americans after the Japanese incarceration in America, Japanese Latin Americans would be denied such benefits on the grounds of being "illegal aliens" during the wartime (Tsuha).
On behalf of all Japanese Latin Americans who suffered internment during the war, the lawsuit
Mochizuki v. United States
(1996) would be held to demand equal compensation; the result however, was an apology and only $5,000 for each internee (Tsuha).
Bailey, Alexandra. "Japanese Canadian Internment During World War II." University of Alberta. N.p., 01 Dec. 2008. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/ccs/index.php/constitutional-issues/the-charter/equality-rights-section-15/740-japanese-canadian-internment-during-world-war-ii>.
"A Brief History of Canada and the Holocaust." Government of Canada. N.p., 2 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/holocaust/history.asp>.
Burns, John F. "Canada Puts Neo-Nazi's Ideas on Trial, Again." The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Mar. 1988. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/03/30/world/canada-puts-neo-nazi-s-ideas-on-trial-again.html>.
"Children during the Holocaust." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 10 June 2013. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005142>.
“The Evian Conference.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007698>.
"The Holocaust and World War II: Timeline." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 10 June 2013. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007653>.
"Japanese Americans." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_home_civil_rights_japanese_american.htm>.
"Jewish Life during the Holocaust." Jewish Life during the Holocaust. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. <http://holocaustcenterpgh.org/page.aspx?id=148359>.
"Meals And Food in the Concentration Camps." N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2014. <http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-camps/daily-life/meals/#.UvSQRPsgfYR>.
"R. v. Zundel." Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <http://scc-csc.lexum.com/decisia-scc-csc/scc-csc/scc-csc/en/item/904/index.do>.
“Refuge in Latin America.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 10 June 2013. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007824>.
Su, Christopher. "An Ambitious Social Experiment: Education in Japanese-American Internment Camps, 1942-1945." Massachusetts Institute of Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/65525/746805717.pdf?...1>.
Tsuha, Shigueru Julio. "A Short History of Japanese Latin American Internment and the Fight for Full Redress." DiscoverNikkei.org. N.p., 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2008/10/22/japanese-latin-american-internment/>.
"U.S. Approves End to Internment of Japanese Americans." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/us-approves-end-to-internment-of-japanese-americans>.
"We Had about One Week to Dispose of What We Owned. "Japanese Americans at Manzanar." National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 15 Jan. 2014. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nps.gov/manz/historyculture/japanese-americans-at-manzanar.htm>.
"World War II: Internment of Japanese Americans." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 21 Aug. 2011. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/08/world-war-ii-internment-of-japanese-americans/100132/>.
This was a direct violation of their natural right of property, or in their case, other material possessions.
Enacted the Nuremberg Race Laws
which violated the Jews' natural rights of liberty, property, and pursuit of happiness
Anti-Jewish racial laws enacted
Jews no longer considered German citizens
Jews could not marry Aryans
Jews could they fly the German flag
(The Holocaust and WWII Timeline).
Believed that the Jews were genetically inferior to Aryans and must be eliminated: direct violating, in the process, the Jews' natural rights of life, liberty, property, and pursuit of happiness
The young Jews taken to concentration camps were not educated. They were either worked intensively or killed ( "Children during the Holocaust").
The prisoners were given numbers to replace their names.
They lived in barracks where they were often crowded into a single place.
The children in the Japanese internment camps were given sub-par education.
The young Jews in concentration camps were given no education
This lack of education greatly affected their chances at the pursuit of happiness and for a better future if they survived.
At the time, Canada's restrictive immigration policies would prevent and hinder the immigration of Jewish refugees from Europe including the 937 Jews who were refused entry into Canada after boarding as passengers on the M.S. Louis ("A Brief History of Canada").
Later in April of 1945, Canadian forces would liberate the Westerbork Transit Camp in the Netherlands freeing 900 Dutch Jews ("A Brief History of Canada").
Ernst Zundel was put on trial in the
R. v. Zundel
(1992) Supreme Court of Canada case, not for participating in Nazi crimes, but for denying the Holocaust as seen after his publication of the pamphlet "Did Six Million Really Die?" ("R. v. Zundel").
Zundel along with his associates are called the "revisionist community," an "international network of men and women who say the Nazi crime, at least as presented in the standard histories of World War II, never happened" (Burns).
In 2011, Canada became the first country to sign the Ottawa Protocol on Combating Antisemitism, an international action plan designed to fight the cause of antisemitism ("A Brief History of Canada").
By the end of 1933, Latin America nations would become more reluctant to allow European Jews to take refuge in Latin America, permitting only about 84,000 Jewish refugees between the time period of 1933 and 1945 primarily because of growing antisemitism ("Refuge in Latin America").
During the Great Depression, political leaders such Fulgencio Batista of Cuba and governments dealt with the economic crisis by creating increasingly tight immigration laws ("Refuge in Latin America").
When U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt called for an international conference to discuss the refugee crisis, delegates from thirty-two countries would meet at the Evian Conference of 1938, and although they felt sympathy for the refugees, most countries would offer only excuses for not letting in more immigrants ("The Evian Conference").
At the conference, despite Dominican Republic President Rafael Leonidas Trujillo's offer to admit up to 100,000 Jewish Refugees into the Dominican Republic, only 645 Jews would be admitted ("Refuge in Latin America").
Between 1938 and 1941, the admission of 20,000 Jewish refugees into Bolivia would take place particularly because of the efforts of German-Jewish mining magnate Mauricio Hochschild and help from the US-based American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee ("Refuge in Latin America").
While Nazi Germany began to implement mass murder of European Jews and some Latin American governments consequently issued passports, visas, etc. that did not all reach their intended nations, such documents would often enable the refugees to begin their journeys to safety ("Refuge in Latin America").
Violation of the natural right of life.
A violation of their natural right of property.
U.S. delegate Myron Taylor delivering a speech at the Evian Conference
Refugees aboard the "St. Louis" while docked in Havana would be denied entry into Cuba; in November 1941, the German government would virtually cut off the flow of Jews immigrating to Latin America ("Refuge in Latin America").
About forty years after World War II and Japanese Canadian internment, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney gave a formal apology along with money compensation after dehumanizing Japanese Canadians by mostly taking away their right of property,
Japanese Latin Americans were all "denied the compensations awarded to Japanese Americans on the grounds that they were 'illegal aliens' during the war" (Tsuha) had dealt with a loss of natural rights after being kidnapped without sufficient justification and then later receiving unequal compensation for the kidnapping.
The German government stated how "astounding" it was how foreign countries would criticize Germany for their treatment of the Jews, but none of them wanted to open the doors to the Jews at the Evian Conference when "the opportunity offer[ed]" ("The Evian Conference").
The immigration policies of Canada at the time would mostly close the door on Jews who sought to escape Europe in the pursuit of happiness and free life ("A Brief History of Canada").
Many court cases would be held for both the Japanese Internment Program and the Holocaust including Korematsu v. United States (1944), R. v. Zundel (1992), and Mochizuki v. United States (1996) all of which would discuss the legitimacy of either of the two events in regard to evidence and loss of equality.