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Copy of Dog Strangling Vine

Invasive Species Assignment

George Clooney

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Dog Strangling Vine

Dog Strangling Vine by: Damian Difazio Originally From Eurasia, the Dog Strangling vine (Cynanchum rossicum) is an invasive species. Introduced to Canada in the 1800's, the Dog Strangling vine has only been a problem since 1970. It is an extremely aggressive plant
from the Milkweed Family. Has vines with stems that reach up to
two meters in length Pink, red-brown, maroon or purple flowers in the spring. It arrived in Canada with European settlers approximately 120 years ago, likely through seeds that had attached to clothes or other items brought with settlers. It has become established throughout many parts of southern Ontario and continues to spread at an alarming rate. It has been spreading into agricultural fields and pasture lands across Ontario. WHAT / WHERE
AFFECTED It has become established throughout many
parts of southern Ontario and continues to spread at
an alarming rate. One species in the ecosystems that this invader has affected is the native milkweed that naturally grows (Dog Strangling Vine is from the Milkweed family). Unfortunately, the Dog Strangling Vine has taken over the native species of milkweed and lowered the native milkweed population. Milkweed Because of this, the Monarch Caterpillar has also been negatively affected. These caterpillars are normally hatched on native milkweed species, as it is the only plant they can eat to survive. With a lack of milkweed plants, the Monarch Butterflies are forced to lay the eggs on Dog Strangling Vine. These eggs hatch into caterpillars, which die because the Dog Strangling Vine is poisonous to them. It currently impacts areas of the Boreal Forest and Temperate Deciduous Forest biomes. If this invasive species continues to spread, it could inhabit other areas in Canada. Dog strangling vine in Ontario (marked with black areas) This causes a chain reaction which creates an unbalence in the whole ecosystem. The Monarch Butterfly population decreases with the lack of surviving eggs. All the small birds that feed on Monarch Caterpillarshave less to eat. The predators above the small birds have less to eat as well. One small species missing creates a lack of food for everyone.The entire equilibrium of the ecosystem is impacted with species dying, creating imbalance in food chains. Management
Control The most effective method of removing the presence of
Dog Strangling Vine from Canada is to prevent further spreading of the plant. Think about limiting your travel through areas infested with dog-strangling vine during seed dispersal (late summer and fall). Seeds should be removed from boots and clothes, pets, bicycles and other equipment when coming out of infested areas so the seeds are not entering a new area to infest. Physical/Mechanical Methods 1) 2) It is also possible to physically eradicate the plant by digging it up from the ground. Since they can re-sprout from root fragments left in the ground, it is necessary to make sure all roots are removed. It is important to do this as soon as possible, as doing it the second year is more difficult because the roots have become stronger and larger. Seed spread can be controlled if the plants are cut back or pulled before they go to seed. Larger infestations can be controlled by applying herbicides, although more than one application may be required. Remember to check product labels and always follow label instructions. The most common and effective herbicides to combat Dog Strangling Vine are Arsenal®, and Garlon 4™. Unfortunately, Dog Strangling Vine builds up resistance to herbicides very quickly due to the fact that it frequently produces seeds. Multiple applications may be required. This method of removal is costly, but usually rather affective. These herbicides also have risks to the environment, and use of them is controlled by laws. Chemical Methods 1) Preventing Other Invasions We can learn methods from this invasion of Dog Strangling vine to prevent further invasive species from spreading in Canada. People should learn to properly identify and manage invasive species. Do not transport plants or animals to new areas, as you may be providing a new home for them to invade and spread. Safely kill invasive species by burning plants or humanely kill invasive animal species. The key to preventing further invasions is to know how to deal with them. If we all work together, we can have stabler ecosystems for our future.
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