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Second language vocabulary learning

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Mirjam K

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Second language vocabulary learning

Warming up
Contents
Warming-up
Background of TPR
Foreign language learning in Holland
Question: What is the best age to learn a second language?


Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect.
The study
Discussion of the implications for education
Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning.
The study
Discussion of the implications for education

Conclusions

Background of TPR

Psychology
Based on childhood language learning
Silent period --> better performance on listening and speaking tasks (Reeds, 1973).
Language learning -->being exposed to large quantities of meaningful input (Krashen, 1981).
Feedback
Increase of motivation (Asher, 1982)
Positive attitude toward foreign language learning (Asher, 1982)
Reduce anxiety and stress

Neuroscience
Right + left hemisphere
Infants internalize language by responding physically (Piaget, 1926). Infants use their right hemisphere to decode speech until the left brain is ready to produce speech.
Repetition
Long-term retention
Tell me and I will forget;
Teach me and I will remember;
Involve me and I will learn.
-Ancient Chinese Proverb
References
Asher, J. J. (1982). Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher’s
Guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
Bahrick, H.P., Bahrick, L.E., Bahrick, A.S., Bahrick, P.E. (1993). Maintenance of foreign
language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science, 4, 316-321.
Carroll, John B. 1969. Psychological and educational research into second language
teaching to young children. Languages and the young school child, 2–68. London: Oxford University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1972). Language and mind. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Flöel, A., Rösser, N., Michka, O., Knecht, S., & Breitenstein, C. (2008). Noninvasive brain
stimulation improves language learning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 1415-1422.
Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. (1962). Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional
architecture in the cat's visual cortex. The Journal of physiology, 160(1), 106.
Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford:
Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: issues and implications. London: Longman.
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological Foundations of Language. New York: John Wiley.
Neville, H. J. & Bruer, J. T. (2001). Critical thinking about critical periods. Baltimore: Brookes
Publishing.
Nikolov, M., & Mihaljevic-Djigunovic, J. (2006). Recent research on age, second language
acquisition, and early foreign language learning. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 234-260.
Reeds, J. (1973). Rapid Acquisition of a Foreign Language by the Avoidance of Speaking.
International Review of Applied Linguistics.


Foreign language learning in Holland
Figure 1: Number of schools who learn children a foreign language from grade 1. http://www.europeesplatform.nl/vvto/scholen/

10 juli 2013

Scholen krijgen meer ruimte om Engels te geven en hier vroeger mee te beginnen. Dat staat in een plan van aanpak van staatssecretaris van Onderwijs Sander Dekker (VVD), dat hij vandaag naar de Tweede Kamer stuurde.

Start experiment met tweetalig onderwijs
Volgend jaar start een experiment waarbij twintig basisscholen de kans krijgen om met tweetalig onderwijs aan de slag te gaan. Bij tweetalig onderwijs is de taal waarin wordt onderwezen dertig tot vijftig procent van de tijd Engels, Frans of Duits.

Uit onderzoek blijkt dat kinderen die op jonge leeftijd vreemdetalenonderwijs krijgen uiteindelijk een andere taal veel beter leren spreken dan kinderen die pas in groep 7 of 8 kennismaken met die andere taal, staat verder in de brief. Aandacht voor Engels heeft volgens Dekker geen negatief effect op het Nederlands.

Dekker:
"Engels is belangrijk voor de toekomst van kinderen. Het is zonde als leerlingen pas in groep 7 beginnen met Engelse les, zoals nu op de meeste scholen het geval is. Ik wil scholen alle ruimte geven om vroeg met Engels aan de slag te gaan."

What is the best age to learn a foreign language?
Psychology
Acquisition vs. Learning
Subconscious vs. Conscious
Natural setting vs. Formal setting
Affective filter (Krashen, 1985)
Self-consciousness
Lack of self-esteem
Performance anxiety


Neuroscience
Acces to Universal Grammar
Neurons adapt their function (Wiesel en Hubel, 1962)







Genie
Critical period







Time (Carroll, 1969)


Children are slower at SLA than adolescents or adults. However, they are able achieve native levels in the long run (Nikolov & Mihaljevic-Djigunovic, 2006).




Genie
Born: 1957

Chomsky
Language is in our genes; nature.
LAD: Language Acquisition Device

Lenneberg
Deadline for acquiring language; critical period.
Loss of brain plasticity
Completion of the lateralization

Genie
Difficulty with physical speech production
Fast acquisition of vocabulary
Difficulty with acquisition of basic grammar
'Apple buy the store.'

Conclusion
There is no critical period for acquiring vocabulary
There is a critical period for acquiring grammar and pronunciation

Foreign language vocabulary learning

TPR: Total Physical Response

Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect
(Bahrick, , Bahrick, Bahrick & Bahrick, 1993)



number of relearning sessions acquisition

spacing between sessions retention (foreign vocabulary)


Subjects: 4 adults (professional psychologists)

Results
Acquisition Retention














Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning.
(Flöel, Rösser, Michka, Knecht & Breitenstein, 2008)
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
20 min anodal tDCS
20 min cathodal tDCS acquisition of foreign vocabulary
30 sec sham

Subjects: 20-32 year old right handed individuals

Results
Immediate lexical knowledge test











No significant difference in the
delayed lexical knowledge test (1 week).








Discussion of the implications for education
Discussion of the implications for education
Delaying exposure to a foreign language, leads to processing grammar with left and right hemisphere. Bilateral brain activation is a harder way of learning (Neville, & Bruer, 2001)
Conclusions
What did you learn today??
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