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Modernism - An Overview
Transcript of Modernism - An Overview
In the beginning...
In the 19th century Paris held yearly art shows exhibiting the most important art being made at that time. However, the Impressionist paintings were rejected by the jurors.
Salon des Refuses
Vincent Van Gogh
The Salon was an exhibition originally intended to showcase the work of graduates from the École des Beaux-Arts. It was essential to be included in the Salon de Paris if you were to achieve any success as an artist. This was the case for over 200 years.
The Lake at Annecy
Still Life with Apples and Oranges
The Starry Night
Woman Holding Fruit
Bedroom in Arles
Self Portrait with Grey Felt Hat
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Still Life with Skull
The Turning Road, L'Estaque
Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Line)
Portrait of Matisse
Maurice de Vlaminck
The River Seine at Chatou
Boats at Collioure
Roofs of Collioure
In Impressionist work, purples and blues are more commonly used to create shadow.
The restriction of black from Monet's palette was so important in his work that at his funeral, his friend Georges Clemenceau could not stand to have his coffin covered by black material exclaiming, "No ! No black for Monet!" He then replaced it with a floral sheet.
Luncheon of the Boating Party
Moulin de la Galette
Like Monet, Renoir was concerned with the effects of light on the subject of his paintings, though Renoir was more concerned with depicting people often painting friends and lovers.
Children at the Beach at Guernsey
Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe
Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère
Two Tahitian Women
The Swineherd, Brittany
Having Dinner Together
Advertisement for the Moulin Rouge
At the Moulin Rouge
In the Salon of the Rue des Moulins
The Red Room
Blue Still Life
Still Life with Blue Tablecloth
The Post Impressionist artists departed from depicting things in a naturalistic sense and began to create paintings that focused far more on feelings and ideas. The Impressionists were more concerned with the beauty of light, depicting fleeting colours and painted nature more directly.
The forms that artists such as Cezanne painted were more distorted and geometric which gave the work a striking, immediate and emotive quality.
Unlike the Impressionists, the Post-Impressionists were not a closely knit group with common ideals. They had different intentions and often worked alone. This resulted in a range of different aethetics and interpretations.
Toulouse-Lautrec was an eccentric artist whose use of colour was bold and unique. As with many other artists, he spent a lot of time in the bohemian district of Montmartre and in particular in the brothels and burlesque nightclubs including the Moulin Rouge.
Toulouse-Lautrec was a talented graphic desigener and regularly designed advertisements for the Moulin Rouge and other clubs. His designs continue to be influential for designers.
During the time when Van Gogh was working, new advances were being made all over the world. One of these advances was the production of paint colours that had never been seen before. Van Gogh used these colours often and used them extremely boldly.
Much of Van Gogh's distinctive and unique technique is defined by thick, painterly surfaces, swirling lines and use of pure, striking colours.
The Sick Child
The Dead Mother
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Self Portrait as a Soldier
Self Portrait with Model
Emotional memories & experiences
Emotions of memory
Glass on a Table
Violin and Candlestick
Fruit Dish and Glass
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Still Life with Chair Caning
Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
Whether the Impressionists were directly influenced by the invention of photography or not is debatable. However, it cannot be denied that the date of Impressionism's inception and the subsequent departure from realism followed extremely closely to that of the wide availability of the photograph
The style of the Impressionists was unmistakable and thought to be crude. In fact, the name "Impressionists" came from a critic who intended to insult the style.
The Impressionists were concerned with the lyrical and underlying content of what their subject contained. Rather than painting exactly what their subject looked like, they painted how their subject felt whether it person. landscape or object.
JMW Turner - The Slave Ship
Having deliberately rebelled against the established order of formal art and the institutions that enforced the rules, the Impressionists often deliberately intended to shock the more conservative tastes of the time. However far removed those tastes seem today.
Describe the techniques that Van Gogh uses to communicate an emotional message to his audience
Suggest how Renoir intended to make the audience feel when they look at this painting
The Post-Impressionists (like the Impressionists) were heavily influenced by Asian art, particularly Japanese woodblock prints. The flat, stylised, geometric colour became extremely noticable in their work.
In a context of constant change, industry, invention, mechanisation, philosophy and innovation, art naturally changed with it. Artists began to re-invent the way art was made and experiment with images as no-one had ever done before.
As with the Impressionists, the name "Fauves came from a criticism intended to be scathing. One critic said that their work was "la cage aux fauves" - "the wild beast's cage. Although the artists were never actually part of a group per se, they did share a common aesthetic and thought the term "Fauves" was apt.
The primary concern of the Fauves was the vivid and aggressive use of colour. They often had a ruthless disregard for conventional form and pushed clashing colours together in order that they may jump off the canvas
This style drew heavily on the influence of Asian woodblocks and exaggerated the colours until they became jarring and sometimes unpleasant. They were also building upon (or breaking down) the now accepted traditions of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.
"...colours became sticks of dynamite that discharged light." - Andre Derain
“golden light that eliminates shadows” - Andre Derain
Modernism was in full swing by the turn of the 20th Century and the rapid change was unstoppable. Art was beginning to branch into unexpected areas. The Fauves were just one of the first of many more radical and wild groups. By 1920 there existed the following: Expressionists, Cubists, Futurists, Constructivists and Dada. These were all major movements that would profoundly affect art.
Originated in Germany
Artists portraying emotions rather than visual truth
Artist perception of the world
The German Expressionists reacted against what they felt was a materialistic and somewhat cold society. They wanted to turn away from the machinery of their civilization. German Expressionists embraced "primitive" art as a way of rejecting the values of their time. This would be later (and simultaneously) reflected in the work of the Dada and Cubist artists.
The Street Enters the House
Dynamism of a Cyclist
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Funeral of the Anarchist Galli
Photo of The Italian Futurists Luigi Russolo and Ugo Piatti with their “noise intoners” (intonarumori), Milan circa 1920. These were invented in 1914 to correspond with the theories outlined in The Art of Noise. There were ultimately 27 different types of intoners, each producing a unique sound in one of the six “families” listed, including “howlers”, “exploders”, “crumplers”, “hissers”, “scrapers”, etc. Russolo performed several concerts with these in the 1920’s. Unfortunately, only one very brief recording is known to exist of these (the intoners have apparently been destroyed).
The Violinist's Hand
We affirm that the world’s magnificence has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing car whose hood is adorned with great pipes, like serpents of explosive breath – a roaring car that seems to run on grapeshot is more beautiful than The Victory of Samothrace - Marinetti(1910)
Time and space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have already created eternal, omnipresent speed… …(we will sing of) the vibrant nightly fervour of arsenals and shipyards with violent electric moons; greedy railway stations that devour smoke-plumbed serpents… …deep-chested locomotives whose wheels paw the tracks like the hoves of enormous steel horses.
…destroy the museums, the libraries, every type of academy… …the great crowds, shaken by work, by pleasure or by rioting”… …We will glorify war – the world’s only hygiene – militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.
To convey a message about the feelings of the individual and the society in which they lived
Poverty after WW1
Heavy use of exaggeration of the painter and/or subject of painting
Often manipulating objects, forms and people to create vivid imagery of the emotions and feelings of the painter or subject.
Use of colour highlights the kind of emotions that are the focus for work. Often dull and gloomy
fractured space and no distinct focal point
Machine-like colour palette
work which is more ambiguous and thought provoking
To represent multiple realities at once
Industrial Revolution and the busy urban environment
articulate the rushing pace of life and change
synaesthesia synergy synchonised Aesthetic
challenge traditional artistic conventions
shock the viewer/audience
repetition of geometric shapes
blurred lines and imagery which is not completely or obviously figurative
often paintings sometimes sculpture
experimentation with media
A Dada Poem
Enigma of Isidore Ducasse
A Mile of String
Begins Zurich 1914
Description of a Dada Performance at the Cabaret Voltaire
Hugo Ball in an outfit used for a Dada Performace
Part of a Dada Manifesto
A part of a Surrealist Manifesto
Dada had to change
Atuomatic drawing and writing
Exploration of the subconscious
Moving away from art for art's sake to art that has functional purpose
A move away from emotionally driven art
idea of utopia
As Dada marches it continuously destroys, not in extension but in itself. From all these disgusts, may I add, it draws no conclusion, no pride, no benefit. It has even stopped combating anything, in the realization that it's no use, that all this doesn't matter. What interests a Dadaist is his own mode of life. But here we approach the great secret.
Dada is a state of mind. That is why it transforms itself according to races and events. Dada applies itself to everything, and yet it is nothing, it is the point where the yes and the no and all the opposites meet, not solemnly in the castles of human philosophies, but very simply at street corners, like dogs and grasshoppers.
Like everything in life, Dada is useless.
Dada is without pretension, as life should be.
Perhaps you will understand me better when I tell you that Dada is a virgin microbe that penetrates with the insistence of air into all the spaces that reason has not been able to fill with words or conventions.
“In Zurich,not involved in the slaughterhouses of the world war, we dedicated ourselves to the fine arts. While in the distance gunfire rumbled, we glued paper, read our works, wrote poetry, and sang at the top of our voices”. Hans Arp
Take a newspaper.
Take some scissors.
Choose from this paper an article the length you want to make your poem.
Cut out the article.
Next carefully cut out each of the words that make up this article and put them all in a bag.
Next take out each cutting one after the other.
Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag.
The poem will resemble you.
And there you are--an infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd.
One and Three Chairs