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Transcript of Nosocomial infections
Types of Infections
Urinary Tract Infections
Blood Stream infections
Surgical site infections
Nosus = disease
Komeion = to take care of
Nosocomial = hospital acquired
is specially one that
not present or incubating prior to the patients being admitted to the hospital but accuiring within
hours after admitance to the hospital.
1 out of 25 patients are infected by HIA
About 99000 patients die each year from HIA
Treatment from HIA cost hospital about 10 billion dollars a year
Medical Conditions :
weak Immune system
Respirotary Equipment :
Common Organisms causing infections
Bacteria : S.aureus , Protease , Klebsiella
Virus : Hepatitis B , C
Fungi : Candida
Other Risk Factors
Longer Hospital Stay
Poor Hygiene :
Urinary Tract Infections
Most common HAI
Usually accurs after urinary catheter is placed
Garm (-) Entericbacteria
E.coli 50 %
Candida albican 14%
Poor Hygiene from health care providers and contaminated equipment (e.g mechanical ventilator neubulizer )
There are classifications for Nosocomial Pneumonia including :
1- Ventilator Accquired Pneumonia (VAP)
2- Hospital Accquired Pneumonia (HAP)
3- Healthcare Associated Pneumonia (HCAP).
Microorganisms can get into intravenous lines from the contamination of
surroundings, equipments, and healthcare providers.
Most common associated device : Central Venous Catheters
Cause is usually cutaneous Microflora
Coagulase (-) Staph (31%)
Staph Aureus (20%)
Surgical Site Infection
Surgery directly invades the body which can introduce microorganisms.
If there is contamination present during the surgery, infection at the site can occur.
MRSA ( Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
: Prolonged Hospitalization, Antibiotic Use, Intensive Care and Invasive Devices.
Bacteria that colonizes the GI tract due to altered gut flora after antibiotic therapy.
Associated with : Fluoroquinolones , Cephalosporins , Carbapenems , and Clindamycin.
1- Direct-contact transmission
Droplets containing microbes the host's body.
Droplets are generated from the source person mainly by :
coughing, sneezing, and talking, and during the performance of certain procedures,
such as bronchoscopy.
Dissemination can be either :
- Airborne droplet nuclei of evaporated droplets containing microorganisms
- Or dust particles containing the infectious agent.
Microorganisms carried in this manner may become inhaled by a susceptible host within the
over a longer
distance from the source patient,
Microorganisms transmitted by airborne transmission :
Legionella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the rubeola and varicella viruses.
Common vehicle transmission
This applies to microorganisms transmitted to the host by contaminated items, such as
food, water, medications, devices, and equipment.
Vector borne transmission
This occurs when vectors such as
mosquitoes, flies, rats, and other vermin
Sterilization kills all microorganisms on equipment and surfaces through :
exposure to chemicals, ionizing radiation, dry heat, or steam under pressure.
Infectious patients must be isolated.
Gloves are worn for three important reasons in hospitals :
1- To provide a protective barrier and to prevent gross contamination of the hands .
2- To reduce the likelihood microorganisms present on the hands of personnel will be transmitted to patients .
3- To reduce the likelihood the hands of personnel contaminated with micro-organisms from a patient or a fomite can be transmitted to another patient.
Gloves must be changed between patient contacts
Wearing gloves does not replace the need for handwashing,
because gloves may have small, inapparent defects or may be torn during use, and hands can become contaminated during removal of gloves.
Modern sanitizing methods such as NAV-CO2have been effective against gastroenteritis, MRSA, and influenza agents.
is effective against endospore-forming bacteria, such as Clostridium difficile.
Ultraviolet cleaning device
s may also be used to disinfect the rooms of patients infected with Clostridium difficile after discharge.
Touch surfaces such as :
bed rails, call buttons, touch plates, chairs, door handles, light switches, grab rails, intravenous poles, dispensers (alcohol gel, paper towel, soap), dressing trolleys, and counter and table tops are known to be :
(one of the most virulent strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria) and v
A number of compounds can decrease the risk of bacteria growing on surfaces including: copper, silver, and germicides.
Wearing an apron during patient care reduces the risk of infection.
The apron should either be disposable or be used only when caring for a specific patient
Hospital acquired infection is a serious risk for any patient visiting a hospital.
It leads to more morbidity and mortality
It is also an important reason for increased cost of treatment
Care must be taken to prevent hospital acquired infections
By : Biinar Ibrahim
Affects about 1.7 million each year
HAI's are Preventable
Pneumonia is the largest cause of
of all hospital acquired infections (70% of all cases)
Most common associated device : Mechanical Ventilation
Gram Negative Bacteria (Pseudomonas, E. Coli, Klebsiella)
2- Indirect-contact transmission
Hospitals have sanitation protocols regarding uniforms, equipment sterilization, washing, and other preventive measures.
Despite sanitation protocol, patients cannot be entirely isolated from infectious agents.
Use of different kinds of soap, (normal and antiseptic), and alcohol-based gels.
The main problems found in the practice of hand hygiene is connected with :
the lack of available sinks and time-consuming performance of hand washing.
An easy way to resolve this problem could be the use of
alcohol-based hand rubs,
because of faster application compared to correct hand washing.
As of 2014, it is unclear whether or not nail polish or rings affected surgical wound infection rates
THANK U ALL
Patients are often prescribed antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs to help treat illness; this may increase the selection pressure for the emergence of resistant strains.