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Effects of the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Transcript of Effects of the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Kelsie Mosher -Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur in 1973 Israel was attacked by Egyptian and Syrian forces.
-Total surprise and the effects were serious because it was unexpected and since it was a holiday, their guard was dropped.
-500 Israeli soldiers, with 157 tanks faced 80,000 Egyptian soldiers and1,100 Syrian tanks.
-Since they were unprepared for this war it created a state of emergency. Air raid sirens sounded throughout Israel and there were blackouts in many cities. Tourists were quickly evacuated.
-This shocking attack came as a blow to Israel and shook its roots which were thought to be strong as steel. -Even though Israel came out of it victorious, the effects of the war were quite negative on the country's
reputation and standing.
-Significant changes for Israel in terms to its relations
with other countries like the Unites States.
-Israel's vulnerability during the war caused it to depend greatly on United States in terms of military, economic, and diplomatic aid.
-Regional arms race and Israel was expected to match the Arab states who were aided by the skyrocketing oil prices around the world, which greatly improved their arsenals forcing Israel to spend more and more money to defend itself, further straining the already week economy. -The use of Arab oil as a political weapon made things more difficult for Israel.
-The Arab oil boycott that came with the war and the dramatic increase of world oil prices in turn increased the West's dependence on Arab oil production. -US secretary of state , Henry Kissinger was a dominant personality in the postwar settlement period.
-Believed that Israel's increased dependence on the United States and Sadat's desire to make the war seem like an Egyptian victory and regain Sinai would allow for an American-brokered settlement.
-Key to this diplomatic strategy was that only Washington could convince a vulnerable Israel to exchange territories for peace in the south. -Kissinger continuously made intensive efforts,
and because of his efforts, Israel was asked to withdraw
its forces from the east bank of the Suez Canal and the inland area, miles behind the UN supervised cease-fire zone.
-Israel also had to give up the territory they gained on the Syrian front.
-One good effect of the war was the reestablishment of good diplomatic relations between Syria, Egypt and United States which were damaged before because of
the consequences of the '67 war. So, the clearance of Suez Canal began which was good news for the Arab countries. -Very first peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.
-According to George Friedman, an American political scientist, the war caused increased Israeli respect for the Egyptian military and decreased their confidence in their own, and also caused the Israelis to be uncertain whether they could defeat Egypt if there were another war.
-At the same time, the Egyptians realized that despite their improvements, they were defeated in the end, and became doubtful that they could ever defeat Israel's militarily.
-Made sense to both sides to negotiate a settlement. -On November 9th 1977, he stunned the world when he told parliament that he would be willing to visit Israel and address the Knesset. Soon after this the Israeli government invited him to do just that.
-In November of that year Sadat visited Israel. He was the first Arab leader to do this. -September 1979 Israel and Egypt signed the peace treaty.
-Israel withdrew its troops and settlers in the Sinai, in exchange for normal relations with Egypt and
a lasting peace.
-Many in the Arab world were absolutely outraged by this and Sadat became unpopular in the Arab world
and also in his own country.
-However, there is still no formal peace agreement between Israel and Syria to this day. -Israel suffered between 2,521 and 2,800 deaths in
action and 7,250 to 8,800 soldiers were wounded.
-About 293 Israelis were captured.
-Approximately 400 Israeli tanks destroyed. The Israeli Air Force lost 102 airplanes and two helicopters.
-According to Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, almost half of these were shot down during the first three days of the war.
-However, IAF(Israeli Air Force) losses per combat were less than in the preceding Six Day War of 1967. -Arab casualties were much higher than Israel's, but
it is hard to say the exact numbers because Egypt and
Syria never disclosed official figures so we can only
rely on estimates.
-The lowest casualty estimate is 8,000
(5,000 Egyptian and 3,000 Syrian) killed and 18,000 wounded.
-The highest estimate is 18,500 (15,000
Egyptian and 3,500 Syrian) killed. These estimates
were made by the Insight Team of the The Sunday
Times of London.
-Arab tank losses amounted to 2,250 -400 of these tanks fell into Israeli hands in good working order and were used for Israeli service.
-Between 341 and 514 Arab aircraft were shot down.
-According to Herzog, of these aircraft were shot down by the Israeli Air Force in air-to-air combat for the loss of only 5 Israeli planes.
-The Insight Team of The Sunday Times notes
Arab aircraft losses of 450.
-19 Arab naval vessels, including 10 missile boats, were sunk for no Israeli losses. All in all there were mixed fortunes for everyone involved. Israel's economy was damaged and its vulnerability and dependency increased. Israel claimed victory on the battlefield. They had great success and far less casualties even though they were unprepared and had far less soldiers than Egypt and Syria. But they also showed that they could be beaten and were not invincible. Politically Sadat and the Arabs won the war. Israel's enemies came to realize that they could not defeat Israel on the battlefield so they turned to diplomatic warfare to weaken Israel's international diplomatic position. "Nothing Has Changed Since the Yom Kippur War." Sabbah Report. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://sabbah.biz/mt/archives/2010/10/08/nothing->. Sources "The Yom Kippur War (October 1973)." The Yom Kippur War (October 1973). N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern History/Israel wars/The Yom Kippur War - October 1973.htm>. "Result of the Yom Kippur War of 1973." Palestine Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_ykwar_result.php>. "Israel - The October 1973 War." Israel - The October 1973 War. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. <http://countrystudies.us/israel/27.htm>. Cannon, Martin. "The Arab-Israeli Cinflict 1945-79."
20th Century World History: Course Companion. Oxford:
Oxford UP, 2009. 77-140. Print. 9 Dec. 2012. The 1973 War. YouTube. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=73>. "Israel Record." The 1973 Yom Kippur War. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.adl.org/israel/record/yomkippur.asp>. "The Yom Kippur War of 1973." The Yom Kippur War of 1973. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/yom_kippur_war_of_1973.htm>. -Sadat was eager to speed up the process. -Major shift of power in the Middle East after the Yom Kippur War which led to Israel and Egypt signing a
Introduction Reputation and Standing Oil as a Political Weapon Henry Kissinger's Role Peace Treaty Anwar Sadat's Role Israeli Losses Arab Losses Conclusion Because of Kissinger Israel was forced to withdraw
from the east bank and a ceasefire was called. Israel's relations with Syria, Egypt and the US were
reestablished and the very first peace treaty between Israel and Egypt was signed. However, despite the
peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan and the generally existing cease fire,the Arab and Israeli worlds generally remain at odds with each other over specific territory and there is still no formal peace agreement between Israel and Syria to this day.