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Transcript of Cognitive dissonance
B. I felt bad.
C. I don't remember.
D. What are you saying, again? Inconsistent attitudes, etc. Cognitive Dissonance Feeling discomfort remove inconsistency Cognition ways of knowing,
and thoughts. Cognitive
Dissonance Feeling of discomfort resulting from inconsistent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors (refer to) (result in) What Oh What No! I think I do. privately publicly (lead to) Theory developed by Leon Festinger (1957) US Social psychologists
best known for his theory of cognitive dissonance (CDT) HOW? The theory Inspired Roger Brown (1965) He pointed out that the theory allows 2 elements 3 different relationships 2
Elements A B 3
Relationships 1. Consonant relationship
2. Dissonance relationship
3. Irrelevant relationship 1. Consonant relationship A B "They are in equilibrium with one another" (They like each other :D) 2. Dissonant relationship A B "They are in disequilibrium with one another" (They don't like each other T__T ) No! Oh Yey! 3. Irrelevant relationship A C "Imply nothing about one another
*no psychological discomfort. (but...)" (They don't know each other. ) Eh? ? Cognitive Dissonance
Theory at Glance In order to avoid the feeling of dissonance We can predict that people will.... 1. IGNORE views that oppose their own
2. CHANGE their beliefs to match their actions Assumptions How beliefs & behavior
change attitudes! Assumptions basic We, human, DESIRE consistency / AVOID inconsistency.
When we encounter with dissonance, we will be motivated to REDUCE dissonacne. / ACHIEVE consonance by Changing beliefs
Changing perception of action Concepts & Processes For example >>> I believe that sleeping late is not good to my health.
Yet, I found myself sleeping late every single day! Change beliefs "Hey.. it's ok! Sleeping late is not that bad." This is the most simplest option but not the most common one.
Because people don't always change the way they believe all the time when they encounter with dissonance. Change action "I will NOT sleep late agian!" Dissonance will be resolved right away if we can stop doing what we are doing. But....... Change Perception of action "All of my friends sleep late as well and they seem to be fine."
"I get enough sleep though." This is the most common one: rationalize our actions 1 2 3 Reference: http://web.mst.edu/~psyworld/cognitive_dissonance.htm#2 .... predict how much discomfort or dissonance one will suffer from a conflicting cognition. Magnitude of dissonance Importance Dissonacne Ratio Rationale Concept #1 refers to quantitative Amount of dissonance a person experience. How significant or important the issue is. The amount of consonant cognitions relative to the dissonant ones. The reasoning employed to explain the inconsistency p. 117 Dissonance Consonance Dissonance Consonance Good! Oh no! Coping with Dissonance Handle with dissonance by increasing
inconsistency Dissonance Consonance Cognitive Dissonance & Perception Strategies to change cognitions and reduce the feeling of dissonance Selective
retention p. 118 Minimal Justification When someone is forced to do (publicly) something they (privately) really don't want to do, dissonance is created between their cognition http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html " if one wanted to obtain private change in addition to mere public compliance, the best way to do this would be to offer just enough reward or punishment to elicit compliance. " Festinger said it in 1957 p. 119 Experiment Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) investigated if making people perform a dull task would create cognitive dissonance through forced compliance behavior. Experiment by http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html p. 119 - p. 120 Conclusion Being paid $1 is not sufficient incentive for lying
= experienced dissonance.
They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable.
Being paid $20 provides a reason for turning pegs
= no dissonance. 71 male students perform a series of dull tasks Method They were paid either $1 or $20 to tell a waiting participant
that the tasks were really interesting. Youtube: "Cognitive dissonance" Chapter 7 (p.112-128) p. 117 p. 118 Results Later on
the participants were asked to evaluate the experiment,
$1: the tedious task is fun!
$20: the task is boring. =__= Cognitive Dissonance
Theory and Persuasion focusing on the persuasion that would effect on how people make a decision. Refers to the dissonance people often feel after deciding on a large purchase. Investigated the regret period It happens Before or After placing a bet Studied whether
principles could help
to quit smoking Integration, Critique, Closing Many researchers point out that the theory is a primary achievement of social psychology. HOWEVER, the theory does have weakness and detractors. Give people small rewards for the things you want them to keep doing. http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/minimal_justification.htm Application Theory Utility & Testability The theory may not posses utility because other theoretical frameworks can explain the experiment better than cognitive dissonance p. 125 CDT is not clear enough.
It doesn't provide the answer for how and when people experience or reduce dissonance.
People are different. (Some can endure more dissonance than other.) said CDT is one of the most significant theories in social psychology. While some said it's weak Steven L. & Karen F. (2008)