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Timeline

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Abby Thomas

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of Timeline

by: Ann-Bernice Thomas Human Origins - A Timeline Australopithicus afarensis Homo sapiens 100,000 years ago - present 3.9 - 2.9 million years ago Diet leaves
fruits
seeds
roots
nuts
insects
the occasional small vertebrae ex. lizards Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Methods of Survival bipedalism energy efficient allowing for more reproduction live in groups Anatomy Jaw and Teeth Teeth Jaw very large molars
thick enamel layer on teeth
teeth designed for grinding
much smaller canines than chimps
smaller canines suggest they're using non-dental methods to protect themselves (i.e. tools and arms), and prepare food higher vertical ramus
greater surface area for attachment of chewing muscles
massive chewing muscles
grinding teeth and jaw are positioned below the major chewing muscles, not in front as in chimps Cranium average cranium capacity: 400 - 500 cubic centimeters
more prominent brow ridge (in comparison to humans)
domed forehead
heavy temporal line
zygomatic arch sits wide on skull
heavy masseter muscles; attached more directly over the back molars for grinding tough, small objects
protruding face (less than chimpanzees, more than humans)
round brain case Locomotion Illium shorter than chimps but larger than humans Hip shallower and smaller
femur head is smaller and more like a chimp
femur neck is long Femur angled femur
angle suggests a weight bearing axis similar to humans
not straight like a chimpanzees - evidence of bipedalism Knee concave and not flat, giving it a more stable join Critical Analysis Lucy's dental structure, chewing muscles, and jaw, permitted her to eat hard fibrous foods and meat. These features were an evolutionary advantage because it allowed her to grind and tear at food without the aid of tools or fire that would have softened her food. Her bipedalism allowed her to have two free limbs at all times, and lowered the amount of energy she expended to travel. This means that her recuperation time after giving birth would have been lower so she could have another child faster and keep her population up. Evolution was kind to Lucy for species without these features would not have survived like she did. Diet carnivorous tendencies
scavengers: feasting on whatever dead animal they managed to find
bone marrow Homo habilis 2.5 - 1.6 million years ago Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Technology stone tools used for breaking open dead animals bones and sucking out bone marrow Methods of Survival bipedalism
scavenging
group scare tactics
they were "jack of a trades," hence the name habilis which is latin for handyman. Meaning they were highly adaptable and could live off of many things Anatomy Cranium average cranium capacity: 680 cubic centimeters
vertical forehead
weaker brow ridge
smaller face and jaw (in comparison to Lucy) Jaw and Teeth cheek teeth narrow mesiodistically Hand finger bones are robust, thick, and curved with broad tips
flexor tendons (like apes) for tree climbing Locomotion heavy leg muscle for tree climbing adducted big toe
well defined foot arches
marked tubercule elongated legs
long forearms Critical Analysis Homo habilis's brain size allowed them to utilize its capacity and create stone tools. The invention of tools allowed them to get at bone marrow, and more easily tear their meat. This caused their teeth sizes to get smaller, as the stress on their teeth was lowered. The arches in their feet allowed for greater shock absorbency; most likely developed for long periods of walking and jumping out of trees. Their hands were thick with strong grips for bone breaking, tree climbing, and other hand strenuous activities. Also, because of their small teeth, it is to be assumed that like Lucy, they used methods other than dental methods, to show agression and be antagonistic. Homo ergaster 1.8 - 1.5 million years ago Diet meat
plant tubers Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Technology hand axes
cleavers
picks
stone flakes
fire Beliefs looked after their sick and ailing
didn't bury dead Methods of survival had an alpha male leader
nomadic; followed the food Anatomy Body tall and slender with long legs
body was relatively hairless
ribcage barrel shaped like human's
smaller stomach
new body shape made it possible to run
noses now create moisture for breathing
able to sweat Cranium brain capacity is 860 cubic centimeters
brain 2/3 the size of ours
use brain to understand other people Skull higher and more domed cranium
indents behind the eye sockets
protruding face (less than ancestors, more than humans)
double arched brow ridge
obvious groove between brow ridge and forehead
humanoid noises - protruding forward instead of flat like ancestors short jaw, lighter than older species, resulting in flatter shorter face
jaw sloped backward - no chin
canine teeth were short and blunt
molar and pre-molars were short and humanoid narrow pelvis
females had broad hips
body was vertically aligned with pelvis
smaller spinal chord Backbones and Pelvis Jaws and Teeth legs longer than arms
lost strong tree climbing capability in favor of long striding gait for long distance travelling
ability to run; change in shoulders, chest, and waist for balance Limbs Homo erectus 1.2 million - 200 thousand years ago Diet hunted large animals
plant foods
diet similar to humans Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Tools small choppers and flakes
fire Methods of survival hunting
tool use
fire Anatomy Body short and stockier than most humans Homo ergaster's hairless and sweating nature makes it able to withstand the hot heat of Africa, and makes it able to control it's cooling system. It also has a protruding nose that takes moisture from the air to also help regulate temperature in a way other than panting, allowing them free to communicate with each other. But the smaller spine means that communication whilst running would have been hard because they lacked the nervous system for such complicated movement. Homo ergasters's long legs and balanced body made running for long distances easy, making it able to follow and hunt down food for long distances. But the combination of a smaller stomach and bigger brain increased their calorie intake, meaning they had to eat more. Luckily, their brain allowed them to understand each other on a interpersonal level making them a tighter group unit and advanced their tool making abilities. These changes allowed Homo ergaster to thrive in a way they wouldn't have been able to otherwise. Critical Analysis brain capacity: 1050 cubic centimeters Skull Cranium large face
sloping forehead
massive brow ridge
broad, flat nose
broad and long skull with sharp angles at the rear
thick skull that formed a small central ridge also known as a midline keel Jaws and Teeth large and thick jaw with no pointed chin
molar teeth had large roots Limbs thick bones
human proportions and human structure Homo erectus's shorter and stockier body most likely made inhabiting the thick bamboo forests easier. Their decreased molar size shows evidence of fire use, meaning their meat was cooked so it became softer and didn't require such large teeth. Their bones were thicker than ours, hinting towards a rougher and more strenuous life. Homo erectus also had tools allowing for easier and more capable hunting, though their tools didn't evolve for an incredibly long time showing that while they did have a large brain capacity, they didn't use it. As the quote goes, "necessity is the mother of invention," which shows that while it would have made their lives easier, Homo erectus didn't necessarily need more inventive tools, so they didn't think to make any. Despite their lack of creation, they thrived for a long time as a well adapt species to their environment due to changes that if they didn't have, they would have failed as a species. Critical Analysis Homo hiedelbergensis 800 - 200 thousand years ago Diet rhino
hippopotamus
bear
horse
deer Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Technology Methods of Survival hunted in groups
fire for warmth and cooking and warding off predators
strong bones for high endurance Most of their tools were previously used by Homo ergaster.
large stone tools with flakes removed from two sides to produce the bifacial stone hand axe, cleaver and carver
made tools from deer antler, bone and wood.
wooden throwing spears Beliefs looked after their sick and ailing
didn't bury dead Anatomy Body tall approx. 5'9
strongly built
long legs Cranium brain capacity is 1250 cubic centimeters
large frontal and parietal lobes
small post-orbital constriction behind eye socket
sloping forehead
moderate sized brow ridge Limbs long lower limbs
proportions like humans'
thick strongly built leg bones Jaws and Teeth less protruding face
lower jaw strongly built for strong chewing muscles
no chin
teeth formed parabolic shape
teeth larger than humans but smaller than other species Homo heidlbergensis's taller body and longer limbs hints that they got their height as an adaption to rain forest climates; their larger skin surface a way to help keep their body cool. Their decreased molar size shows that they were effectively using fire to cook their meat. But since they participated in mainly all meat diets, their teeth were still larger than modern day humans'. Heildlbergensis's bones were also thicker than ours, hinting towards a rougher and more strenuous life. Their tools hadn't adapted much since homo ergaster, though some of the elements to making them changed depending on their environment. Their longer limbs as well as all their other developments made their lives significantly easier during the tropical jungle period of Africa. Critical Analysis Homo neanderthalensis 200 - 28 thousand years ago Diet hunted large animals
vegetation
possible cannibalism Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Tools more complex tools than other ancestors; believed to have traded with humans
blade tools Methods of survival fire for hunting and keep warm
wore animal hides for warmth
used caves as shelter Beliefs buried dead, though not necessarily for religious purposes Anatomy Body generally shorter
more robust skeletons
thicker bones Cranium brain capacity larger than humans: 1500
long and low skull shape with a rounded brain case
back of skull had an occipital bun and a depression for the attachment of strong neck muscles
thick and rounded brow ridge
flat, receding forehead
large eye sockets
large broad nose Jaws and Teeth Pelvis and Limbs larger more robust jaws
no chin
teeth larger than humans' thick limbs with big joints
shorter chins and forearms
short, wide pelvis approx. 5'4 approx: 5'2 (f) - 5'9 (m) approx. 4'9 - 6'1 5'6 - 6'1 approx. 3'4 - 4'5 approx. 4'0 Homo neanderthal's small nature, robust/barrel shaped ribcage, and short limbs are specifically designed to keep heat in; an essential part of their survival during the ice age. Their large noses were used to keep them cool so that they wouldn't sweat during physical exercise since sweat would just freeze and make them colder. They also had a very dense muscle mass because muscle acts as an insulator to keep heat in. Plus because they didn't have throwing spears (favoring jabbing spears because of the dense forests they hunted in), the weapon caused them to have very large arm muscles. They had a large brain in comparison to the rest of their body which, in unison with their muscle mass made them eat a lot. Neanderthals short and wide pelvis and short legs, made it incredibly hard for them to run long distances; a feature not needed in their barren landscape. Overall, neanderthals were very adept at surviving their environment and if they had lacked any of their adaptions, it isn't very likely that they would have survived. Critical Analysis approx. 5'7ft Diet everything Technology, beliefs, and methods of survival Tools atlatl - wooden throwing spear and launcher Methods of survival fire
trading appliances with other tribes
living in groups
making shelters
making animal cloth clothing
forethought
sophisticated communication; language, art, paintings Beliefs different religion for different tribes Anatomy Cranium large brain capacity: 1350 cubic centimeters
skull has short base and high brain case
skull is broadest at top
reduction in neck muscles
face is almost under skull and is relatively small
protruding nose
square eye sockets
small brow ridge
tall forehead Limbs and pelvis thinner less robust bones; indicate less muscle
longer legs than arms
fingers and toes are straight, not curved
narrower pelvis from sided to side Jaws and Teeth short jaws, resulting in vertical face
light jaw
only species to have a pointed chin
small teeth Homo sapien's have a very large brain that they use to their advantage in the way of forethought, planning, asking questions, and solving them allowing them to be very adept at making tools to improve the efficiency of their lives. They have long legs, and short and narrow pelvises, giving them a lean runner's build. This was helpful when the world became flat planes, because it allowed them to track their prey for far distances whilst keeping up a steady pace that kept them in time with the animals. Their small teeth are evidence that they cook most all of their food, and their clothing shows that they were dressed most all of the time. All in all, homo sapiens are very adaptable, and have proven their evolutionary status by expanding most the whole world. Critical Analysis http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species
http://australianmuseum.net.au/
http://www.becominghuman.org/
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