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Sexually Transmitted Infections (HSC 421)
Transcript of Sexually Transmitted Infections (HSC 421)
HSC 421I- Health Behavior
Professor Falcetti - Infections that are spread primarily through person-to-person sexual contact
- More than 30 different STIs that transmit bacteria, viruses and parasites What are Sexually Transmitted Infections? - Total of 110 million STIs across the nation
-20 million new STIs occur each year, almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24
- Affects men and women of all backgrounds and economic levels, and add an estimated $16 billion to the nation's healthcare costs each year Prevalence: How Common Are STIs? (National Level) Potential Risk Factors in College:
1. Unaware or Unconcerned
2. Unprotected sex
3. Illicit Drug Use
4. Multiple Partners
5. Alcohol Use
6. Community with STIs
7. Having a "high risk" partner Why is this a concern to College Students? Prevalence of STIs: CSULB (Local Level) (World Health Organization, 2013) - Most Common:
6. Genital herpes
7. Genital warts
8. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
(National Statistics- Yearly) (National Prevention Intervention Network, 2013) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Gonorrhea Defintion: Gonorrhea Cause: Bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis
Infects: Both men and women
Modes of Transmission: Vaginal, anal, oral sex Chlamydia Additional Facts: Factors Contributing to STIs Community Factors What is CSULB doing to address this issue? CSULB Health Resource Center
Located in SHS 268
(562) 985-4609 What is CSULB doing to address this issue? HRC Free Programs:
Male condom packets
Gardasil vaccine (if qualified)
Sexual Health Awareness Workshop (SHAW)
Pregnancy options counseling
Referrals, pamphlets, newsletters, journals and other resources Prevalence in California Protective Factors against STIs Class Activity/Game References What can you do to prevent the spread of STIs?
-Abstinence! Only 100% effective method
-Use condoms for vaginal, anal, AND oral sex
-Don't share needles
-GET TESTED! "Flow of the Seed" What is it?Signs and symptomsModes of Transmission: Vaginal, anal oral? Gonorrhea is a sexual transmitted infection that is caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Signs and Symptoms: Men: Burning sensation when urinating White, yellow, or green discharge from the penis (1-14 days) Painful or swollen testicles some men may not experience any symptoms Women: Most women do not have any symptoms Can be mistaken as a bladder of vaginal infection Painful or burning sensation when urinating Increased vaginal discharge Vaginal bleeding between periods Can be spread through mucus membranes. Get tested ASAP! It can lead to unnecessary complications ` Chlamydia In the year 2011, there were:
2,744 tests for Chlamydia
2,267 were female
477 were male
70 females tested positive
31 males tested positive
3.08% of the women tested, were positive for Chlamydia Every year, the CSULB Health Center collects statistics on STIs. 2012 hasn't yet been completed, so the following numbers are from the year 2011 only.
To date, CSULB has not had a positive
HIV test in at least 3 years! Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) HPV aka "Clap" or "Drip" Gonorrhea—Rates by Age and Sex, United States, 2011 Sexually active teenagers, young adults and African Americans are most likely to be infected
Gonorrhea can be cured! Additional Facts: Prevention Abstain Use a condom...correctly Be in a long term committed relationship with someone who does not have gonorrhea Intrapersonal Factors Unprotected Sex Multiple Partners Early Age of Sexual Onset Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use Boils down to your lifestyle Using Only Birth Control Pills
Symptoms in women
Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor
Bleeding between periods
Abdominal pain with fever
Pain when having sex
Itching or burning
Pain when urinating
Symptoms in men
Small amounts of clear or cloudy discharge
Burning and itching
Pain and swelling around the testicles Often causes no symptoms and may be unknowingly passed to sexual partners.
- 75% of infections in women and 50% in men are without symptoms. Symptoms If left untreated: Women:
1. Pelvic inflammatory disease, damaging fallopian tubes
3. Increase risk of ectopic pregnancy
4. Premature births- eye infection, blindness, pneumonia in newborn
1. Nongonococcal urethritis
3. Proctitis Health Education Programs to Address Issue American Sexual Health Association
Site Icon (ASHA)
P.O. Box 13827
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827
1-800-783-9877 - In 2011, 1,412,791 cases of chlamydia were reported to the CDC
and an estimated 2.86 million infections were reported to occur annually
- can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman's reproductive organs
- TREATMENT: Antibiotics (5-10 days) 321,849 cases were reported to the CDC in 2011 2nd Place!
Los Angeles County, Ca 10,121 cases CDC, Reported Cases and Rates of Gonorrhea in Counties and Independent Cities, 2011 1st Place! Cook County, IL 10,864 cases 3rd Place! Wayne County, MI 7,353 Cases Vaginal symptoms Anal symptoms Anal or rectal itching
Painful defecation Mouth and Throat symptoms Typically asymptomatic
Soreness and redness of the mouth or throat Eye symptoms Conjunctivitis Penis symptoms There are more than 40 types of HPV occurring on the genitals
Some cause genital warts and some cause certain types of cancers
(cervical, anal, rectal, throat, etc)
Transmission is through skin-to-skin contact with an infected area and can be transmitted anywhere on the body. Genital warts can even occur in the throat and respiratory tract!
HPV is by far the most common STI and is predicting to inflict nearly all sexually active people at some point in their lives. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
(National Statistics- Total) (CDC, 2013) Chlamydia (CDC, 2013) Gonorrhea In the year 2011, there were:
2,858 tests for Gonorrhea
2,301 were female
557 were male
5 females tested positive
21 males tested positive
3.77% of the men tested,
were positive for Gonorrhea! Human Immunodeficiency Virus
-the cause of AIDS
-Two strains have been identified: HIV-1 and HIV-2 Signs and Symptoms
Swollen lymph nodes
Ulcers in the mouth Activities that allow HIV Transmission:
unprotected sexual contact (vaginal and anal)
direct blood contact (including injection drug needles, blood transfusions, accidents in health care
mother to baby (before or during birth, or through breast milk) (AIDS.gov) Fast Facts
More than one million people are living with HIV in the U.S.
One in five living with HIV is unaware of their infection.
MSM, particularly young, black MSM, are the most severely affected by HIV.
By race, African Americans face the most severe HIV burden. The major development related to the treatment of HIV is Antiretroviral Therapy. This treatment has been developed through years. Based on the HIV facts, this is the perfect way to delay the growth of the virus in the body. HIV gives bad effect for the infected people. Their body will be weak and fragile. These people are so powerless. They are more susceptible to be infected with other diseases like cancer or pneumonia. Interpersonal Factors Abusive Family Negligence "Friends"
social support Significant Other Treatment:
Clinical treatments of the warts
Vaccines, like Gardasil
-Prevents 4 most common types of HPV
-2 most common causes of warts
-2 most common causes of cancer (Centers for Disease Control) American Sexual Health Association - Gonorrhea. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.ashasexualhealth.org/std-sti/gonorrhea.html
CDC - STD Surveillance, 2011 - Gonorrhea. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/gonorrhea.htm
Gonorrhea Causes, Diagnosis, and Symptoms in Men and Women. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/guide/gonorrhea
STD - Disease Risk - Top 10 Risk Factors for Acquiring an STD. (n.d.). Retrieved April 19, 2013, from
STD Facts - Gonorrhea. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm
Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, April 20). Chylamydia-CDC Fact Sheet. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia.htm
Holmes, K., Sparling, P., Stamm, W., Wasserheit, J., Corey, L., & Cohen. (2007). Sexually transmitted diseases. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.
World Health Organization. (2013, April 20). Sexually Transmitted Infections. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/topics/sexually_transmitted_infections/en/
FUNDCARE. (2013). What is the difference between hiv-1 and hiv-2?. Retrieved from
Edberg, M. (2007). Essentials of health behavior. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Kirby, D. (2007, November). Sexual risk and protective factors. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/ea2007/protective_factors_SUM.pdf
AIDS.GOV. (2012, June 6). Signs and symptoms. AIDS.GOV. Retrieved from .http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/signs-and-symptoms/index.html Anal or rectal itching Discharge Painful defecation Anal Symptoms Typically asymptomatic Soreness and redness of the mouth or throat Mouth and Throat symptoms