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Ruminotorics Presentation

Physiology
by

Whitley Colvin

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Ruminotorics Presentation

Ruminotorics-types and mechanisms of actions
Jovian Bailey
Corren Freeman
Whitley Colvin
Benjamin Mitchell

Ruminotorics
Definition:
Compounds that promote rumen function and motility
Include:
Mineral oil and/or dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS)
Ruminal fluid transfer
Ruminoreticular antacids
Ruminoreticular acidifying agents
Modulators of ruminoreticular motility

Conclusion
Ruminotorics are important for GI motility
Each works differently on the body
However, many of them are defective
Need for veterinarians to improve them
May be you all in the future
Overview
Introduction
Importance and definition
Compounds
Mechanisms
Limits
Effectiveness and legality
Conclusion

Consists of forestomachs
Rumen, reticulum and omasum
Utilize microbial predigestion for food
System is compromised in many conditions
Include infectious diseases and reduced flow of alkaline saliva

Introduction into ruminant digestive system
Importance in Veterinary Medicine
Ruminants (e.g. cattle) are important livestock
Also used for scientific studies
Genome of Hereford cow sequenced
Can be used for optimum livestock breeding and disease-research
Necessitates medicine to restore rumen motility
Ruminoreticular antacids
Substances used to neutralize the forcestomach in ruminants
Examples include:
Magnesium Hydroxide (cattle: 100-300g; sheep 10-30g)
Magnesium Carbonate (cattle: 10-80g; sheep: 1-8)
Mixed in 10L of warm water to ensure adequate dispersion through the ruminoreticular contents.
Activated charcoal (2g/kg) to protect the ruminoreticular mucosa from further injury by inactivating toxins
Modulators of ruminoreticular motility
Used to restore normal ruminoreticular environment
Include:
Parasympathomimetic agents (e.g. neostigmine and physostigmine)

Rumenoreticular antacids are principally used to treat Ruminal Lactic Acidosis.
Switching from high fiber to high concentrate diets that is rich in fermentable carbogydrates
Uses
Erythromycin Lactobionate
is a macrolide antimicrobial that increases gut myoelectric activity by binding to motilin receptors in intestinal smooth muscle cells. In cows, erythromycin was found to increase myoelectrical activity in the abomasum and duodenum for >2 hr. Erythromycin is only approved by the FDA for treatment of shipping fever, pneumonia, foot rot, and metritis. Deep IM injection in muscles of the neck is recommended due to the risk of pain, swelling, and tissue blemishes at the injection site.

Atropine
Atropine is also used to determine disruption of forestomach motility in cattle suspected to have vagal indigestion. An increase of >16% in the heart rate 15 min after atropine administration is considered indicative of severe disruption of forestomach motility.

Xylazine Hydrochloride
Xylazine-induced atony of the reticulorumen may be reversed by pretreatment with tolazoline, atipamezole hydrochloride, or yohimbine. Prevent magnet loss into the cranial sac. Adverse effects of xylazine in cattle include bradycardia, hypothermia, salivation, diuresis, ruminal bloat, and aspiration pneumonia. Neither xylazine nor its antidotes have been approved by the FDA for use in cattle.

Prokinetic Serotoninergic and Cisapride Drug
is widely used in equine medicine yet significant prokinetic effects have not been conclusively demonstrated in ruminants. Furthermore, definitive clinical and experimental data to support the use of opioids or lidocaine in ruminants have not been published.

Promotes forestomach functions by reestablishing the normal ruminal microflora
“Best” ruminotoric
It contains ruminal bacteria and protozoa
It contains useful fermentation factors (VFA)
Used in cases of ruminoreticular stasis
Microflora is more adaptable if donor animal has similar diet of recipient
Once normal ruminal microflora is reestablished, normal fermentation and ruminoreticular motility should follow

Ruminal Fluid Transfer
Ruminal Fluid Transfer
8-16 L of fresh ruminal juice is ideal for cattle
Use a extractor pump or siphoning to aspirate the ruminal flood from a donor animal
Collect it from a slaughterhouse (only as a last resort)
Give ruminal fluid PO or with a tube to recipient animal

Therapeutic approach that aids in the reduction of foam stability and the promotion of releasing free gas
Used in cases of acute frothy bloat
Examples include:
Poloxalene – poured over feed or by stomach tube
Polymerized methyl silicone – Intraruminal injection
Docusate Sodium – PO
Vegetable Oils - PO
Antifoaming Agents
Neostigmine (cecal dilatation) Bethanechol (cecal dilatation without torsion)
Potential side effects include salivation and diarrhea.
Not FDA approved
N-butylscopolammonium bromide (control diarrhea) Not FDA approved
Parasympathetic/Cholinergic agents
cholinergic and antidopaminergic effects, increase myoelectric activity of pyloric antrum. Because metoclopramide can cross the blood-brain barrier, restlessness and excitement are potential side effects. Metoclopramide has not been approved by the FDA for use in cattle.
Metoclopramide
Work Cited
1. North Carolina State University. Plants Poisonous to Livestock. Obtained 9 Nov. 2013. <http://harvest.cals.ncsu.edu/applications/plant_biology/poisonous/Glossary.cfm>
2. Kahn, C. M. (Editor). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th ed. Merck & Co., Inc: New Jersey, 2005.
Science Magazine Podcast.24 Spr. 2009. Obtained 9 Nov. 2013 http://podcasts.aaas.org/science_podcast/SciencePodcast_090424.mp3
Cunningham, James G., and Klein, Bradley G. Textbook of Veterinary Physiology. 4th ed. Saunders Elsevier: St. Louis, Missouri 2007.
http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/pharmacology/systemic_pharmacotherapeutics_of_the_digestive_system/drugs_for_specific_purposes_in_the_ruminant_digestive_system.html
http://www.scribd.com/doc/30677365/Drugs-Acting-on-Digestive-System-of-Animals
http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/pharmacology/systemic_pharmacotherapeutics_of_the_digestive_system/drugs_for_specific_purposes_in_the_ruminant_digestive_system.html
http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/707/1/revised+Gastrointestinal+agents.pdf
Any Questions?
1. What percentage of DNA do bovines (e.g. Hereford cow) share with humans?
(HINT: It s more than 50%)
A. 60%
B. 80%
C. 75%
D. 90%
Numero Uno
Which type of ruminotoric will reestablish the ruminal microflora?
A. Antifoaming agents
B. Histology
C. Acids
D. Ruminal Fluid Transfer

Numero Dos
Numero Tres
What drug is FDA approved but not for the treatment of rumen motility?
A. Erythromyicin
B. Xylazine
C. Atropine
D. Neostigmine
Ruminoreticular Acidifying Agents
Substances used to increase the the hydrochloric acid (HCl) or gastric acid in the fore-stomachs of ruminants
Examples include:
Acetic acid (4-5%)
vinegar
other weak acids
~20L warm water or saline via a stomach tube
Physiological Mechanism
The resultant systemic dehydration and acidosis necessitate immediate correction of fluid and electrolyte balance and restoration of a viable microbial population. Often, the latter involves removal of ruminoreticular contents and replacement with fresh ruminoreticular fluid.
Ruminoreticular acidifying agents are used to treat stasis (pH of rumen > 7.5, inactive ruminal fermentation due to bicarbonate-rich saliva) , simple indigestion, or ammonia poisoning (elevates pH, increase in urease, and absorption of free ammonia
Uses
Return pH toward physiologic levels
Promotes VFA uptake
Inhibits excessive urease activity
Physiological Mechanism
Time to use your Noggin
Good Job Thanks for your Time and Attention
Full transcript