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International Relations in the Middle East

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Miya Simpson

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of International Relations in the Middle East

Collapse of the Ottoman Empire


Mandate System International Relations in the Middle East Has the historical formation of the Middle East state system in the era of Westernization and imperialism produced an unusually flawed system with instability built into it? I. The historical formation of the Middle East state system in the era of Westernization and imperialism



II. How has this created an unusually flawed system with instability built into it? Outline European interaction with the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Guild system Industrial Europe European-Ottoman Capitulations The case of Egypt
Muhammad Ali: agricultural & industrial reforms 1838: Commercial Treaty between British and Ottoman
Empire

1856: Railway construction

1869: Suez Canal

Aggravation of Egyptian debt & growing tension among indigenous powers

1882: Intervention & British occupation of Egypt Mercantile Europe "Eras of Westernization and Imperialism" Ottoman Empire &
Industrial Europe Colonial / Imperial rule in the Middle East COLD WAR
Suspension of Imperial penetration

European powers withdraw, replaced by
U.S. / USSR Neo-Imperialism

U.S. penetration of the Middle East Independence Ottoman Public Debt and the Public Debt Administration Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 Balfour Declaration 1917 Hussein-McMahon 1915-1916 Versailles Peace Conference 1919 Politics The Map




Upper-class based regimes
vs.
Mobilization of the Middle class

2 decades of political instability 1945-67
Military coups
Rise of radical parties Creation of Israel 1948: Israeli War of Independence / Palestinian Al-Naqba
1956: Suez Canal Crisis
1967: 6-day War
1967-1970: War of Attrition
1973: Yom Kippur War
1982: Lebanon War San Remo Conference 1920 The Europeans:
Structural upper-hand
United in their imperial interests
Soldiers occupied Egypt/Palestine/Syria/Iraq The Arab Delegation Divisions of the Arab lands completed:
Compatible with Sykes-Picot and Balfour Declaration
Disregarded Hussein-MacMahon correspondence
"Sharifian solution" The Mandates Iraq Palestine Syria Lebanon Jordan (Transjordan) Conclusion Artificial borders 1987-1993: 1st intifada
2000-2005: 2nd intifada
2006: Lebanon War
2008-2009: Gaza war
Today: Possible crisis with Iran? Economics British French Faisal bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi King of Iraq
Institutions established in close alliance with Britain
1920: Anti-British Revolt
Continuing unrest led to termination of the mandate in 1930 Abdullah bin Hussein(Faisal's brother) King of Jordon
1946: Transjordon becomes a Kingdom
1948: U.S extends recognition of Transjordon and Israel on same day (Mandate terminated) Zionists and Palestinians
The 2 national struggles create an unmanageable situation
1947: Palestinian problem referred to the UN: voted for partition


1948: First Arab-Israeli War النكبة 1926: Lebanese Republic
Borders created to preserve a Christian majority
Nationalist movements called for greater independence
1943: Lebanon Independent No internal support for the French presence in Syria
1925-1927: French attempts to divide the country spark revolts
1943: Syria independent 1) Irredentism
Arab Nationalism
Division of Nations / Creation of minorities
Large poor states next to small rich states
Borders of Israel

2) Lack of popular identification with the state 2. Installation of Client Elites 1. Foreign Policy Insulation from foreign affairs

Politics focused on:
opposing colonial rule
nationalist movements Egypt's 'Free Officers'
1952 Coup against King Farouk Leaders of the 1958 Revolution in Iraq 1) War 2) Regional Insecurity Has the historical formation of the Middle East state system in the era of Westernization and imperialism produced an unusually flawed system with instability built into it? Yes Early stages of Westernization and Imperialism: Set the terms of the relationship between the West and the Middle East: Fractured, unstable and dependent Flaws created by the Colonial legacy after the Second World War: Artificial borders: Irredentism Israel: Irredentism, War, seen as surrogate for Western interests Client elites: domestic upheaval Failure to prepare states for International Relations The Arab delegation:
Differing visions of Arab statehood
Unpracticed in modern state diplomacy
Arabs in a 'European club' 1800s 1900s 2000s 1948: Israeli declaration of Independence POLITICS THE MAP ECONOMICS Bibliography: Hinnebusch, International Politics of the Middle East, Chapter. 2

Hinnebusch and Ehteshami, Foreign Policies of Middle East States, Chapter 3

Halliday, The Middle East in International Relations, Chapters 3, 4 & 9

Fawcett, International Relations in the Middle East, Chapters 1 & 2

Korany and Dessouki, Foreign Policies of Arab States, 2008 Chapters 3 & 14

Hinnebusch, "The Middle East in the World Hierarchy: imperialism and resistance", Journal or IR & Development, 14, 2011

Anderson, Siebert, Wagner, Politics and Change in the Middle East, pp. 213-240

Lustick, "The Absence of Middle Eastern Great Powers: Political "Backwardness" In Historical Perspective", International Organization, v. 51, 4, Autumn 97, 653-683
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