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Word class

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by

Anamarija Štulina

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Word class

Academic Language
Word class (parts of speech)
Word class forms
Most grammatical words have only one form, and some other words have only one word class,
e.g. the adjective
widespread
Word class - Using word class to identify main ideas
When you are listening or reading it is important to identify the main ideas. This helps you to take notes on the most important information. the words that carry the most of this information are often
nouns
,
verbs
, and
adjectives
.
NOUNS
A noun is a word that identifies:

a person (
woman, boy, doctor, neighbour
)
a thing (
dog, building, tree, country
)
an idea, quality, or state (
truth, danger, birth, happiness
).
Verbs
A verb describes what a person or thing does or what happens. For example, verbs describe:

an action –
run, hit, travel
an event –
rain, occur
a situation –
be, seem, have
a change –
become, grow, develop
Adjectives
An adjective is a word that describes a noun, giving extra information about it. For example:

a
sweet
taste
a
red
apple
a
technical
problem
an
Italian
woman
About half the words in academic texts are from the four meaning-carrying word classes.
The remaining half are the grammatical words.
Meaning carrying
nouns
verbs
adjectives
adverbs
Grammatical words
prepositions
determiners
primary auxiliaries
pronouns
coordinators
modal auxiliaries
subordinators
It is very common for nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs to have more than one form:

concept
(noun),
conceptual
(adjective),
conceptualize
(verb),
conceptually
(adverb).
Identifying and understanding word class can make it easier to understand sentence structure and meaning.
Building word families
By learning word families, you will greatly increase your vocabulary. Word families are groups of words based on the same root word, but different forms, for example:

Noun
- theory
Adjective
- theoretical
Adverb
- theoretically
Verb
- theorize

Some words within a word family may be more common than others - for example, the noun
theory
is more frequent an more useful than the verb
theorize
. Not all forms of the word are found in all word families.
AFFIXES
The term affix covers
prefixes
and
suffixes
. Affixes are useful in recognizing word class, which in turn can help with understanding sentence structure.
Suffixes
Suffixes are a group of letters added to the end of a word to change the form of that word.

Noun suffixes include:
cogni
tion
, real
ity
, critic
ism
, happi
ness.

Adjective suffixes include:
critic
al
, memor
able
, informat
ive
, success
ful
.

Adverbs typically take the suffix: critical
ly
, successful
ly
.
(adjective+
ly
)

The frequent verb suffix is critic
ize
, theor
ize
.

Many words in academic texts can have a number of affixes to build up more complex meanings,
e.g.
commerce (n) - commerc
ial
(adj) - commerc
ial
ize
(v) - comerc
ial
iaz
ation
(n)

In its original context,
the commercialization of news,
the meaning can be rephrased as '
news has become more commercial'.
Full transcript