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State of Development in India as a BRIC+ Country

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Suji Strain-Kokich

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of State of Development in India as a BRIC+ Country


By: Suji Strain-Kokich, Alex King, Sam Mendelson, Casey Brown India Largest Democracy
Colony of Great Britain until August 15, 1947
Capital: New Dehli
Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH
President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007) Facts 2nd most populous
1,205,073,612 (July 2012 est.)
1/6 of world’s population and 1/3 of world’s poor
Population expected to overtake China by 2030
Mumbai is the most populated city
Life expectancy-64 years (men), 68 years (women) (UN)
29.8% of population remains in poverty Population Continued Ethnicities- Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Religion-Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census) India Today Today India is a rising powerhouse.
It is growing in the open market economy, with a growing skilled labor force However... Poverty remain widespread
Human Development Index
0.547
Ranked 134
“Medium” human development
Violence and crime remain a huge issue
especially against women
Natural Hazards
Much political uncertainty
corruption Being a vast country, there are many differences between the North and South
Clothing
Ethnicity
Food http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-north-and-south-india/ Extensive poverty
Population living below $1.25 PPP per day: 41.6%
Population living below $2.00 PPP per day: 75.6%
Overpopulation
Gini index: 36.8 (not that unequal)
Global Hunger Index
65th out of 88 countries
Under-nutrition very high, on par with Africa
40% of total households lack access to electricity; 56% in rural areas Poverty HEALTH Substantial gains in its health status, but many challenges remain
Infant mortality still high
20% of births, 25% of child deaths
1/13 children dies before age 5 (1.9m every year)
Child born in India is 10x less likely to live past 28 days than US baby
67,000 Indian women die every year from avoidable pregnancy complications 1/2 of population have access to safe drinking water
<1/3 lack access to sanitation facilities
44.5% of households have access to a toilet Hygiene 42.5% of children under 5 are underweight
20% of the total population undernourished Nutrition TB and HIV are big problems
2.31 million people are HIV+ (40% are women)
~1.98 million new TB cases a year (2008)
Many other infectious diseases
High degree of risk
Food or waterborne, including bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, typhoid fever
Malaria
Rabies Literacy:
Total: 61%
Female: 48%
Years of schooling
Expected for children: 10.3 years
Mean year for adults: 4.4 years
Retention a big problem
96% of all rural children ages 6-14 enrolled in school
50% of children drop out of school by grade 8
Only 34% reach grade 10 Education Gender Reproductive rights
Maternal mortality ratio: 230
Adolescent fertility rate: 68.1
Empowerment
Shares in parliament, ratio female to male: 0.119 (10.7%)
Population with secondary education, female/male ratio: 0.498
Labor Market
Labor force participation rate, female-male ratio: 0.404 Violence against women
Crime against woman: 3 min
Woman raped: 29 min
Dowry death: 77 min
Case of cruelty by a husband or relative: 9 min
Gender Inequality Index
0.64
Ranked 129 of 146
Sex work
Approximately 2 million women and children involved
20% of sex workers are minors Environment Agriculture-related
Deforestation
Soil erosion
Overgrazing
Desertification
Industry-related
Air pollution from industrial effluents
Vehicle of emissions
4th largest emitter of greenhouse gases
3rd largest consumer/prouder of coal
Water pollution Overstrained natural resources
3/4 rural households rely on traditional sources of energy for cooking and heating
Animal dung and Crop residues
Health costs of environmental degradation: ~$7 billion a year Starting in the late 1980's: begins to open up to the outside world
1991: Economic Reform Plan started by then Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao
India moved from a quasi-socialist structure to free-market system
Cut government regulations
Abandon subsidies and fixed prices
Privatize state run industries
Industrial deregulation
Spurred growth and foreign investment
Growth has averaged around 7% from 1997, until 2007
Asia's Rise - how and when? www.bit.ly/ZldtVb
2011: Slowed growth due to tightened monetary policies Economic Reform Have moved from protectionist policies to more liberal, open-market policies
2010 World GNI Ranking: 11th
53% of the labor force works in agriculture
Major exporter of information technology services and software workers
India needs "a massive campaign to provide potential workers with education and training." Current Situation Future Growth 33% of the population is under the age of 15
Low dependency rate
Healthy savings and investment rates
Increasing integration into global economy Positive Factors Challenges poverty
inadequate social and physical infrastructure
small numbers of nonagricultural employment opportunities
inadequate access to and quality of basic and higher education Western nations view as major priority
Unique partnership
India and West tackling together
Private sector development work growing
Major priorities
Health
Food security
Clean energy
Women and girls
Agriculture technology improving
Implementation of Direct Benefit Transfers in 2013 Future Jharkhand is one of India’s largest coal producing regions. Jharkhand is home to a range of hunter-gatherers, shifting agriculturists, artisans, and settled agriculturists. Many of these tribes have been displaced in the past due to mining, dams, and rapid urbanizations since India’s independence. The rich natural resources of the region offer a path out of poverty and the possibility of development. The network of state and federal regulations create a system that often overlaps and increases costs. Furthermore there is a 30% corporate tax rate.

The region is home to over 32 million people, along with rich river basins and forests, which are home to tigers, Asian elephants, and a vast range of flora and fauna. There are many large national parks, but these also lie on top of coal reserves. As a whole, India’s reserves for barite, bauxite, chromite, coal, limestone, and manganese are in the top ten in the world.

Recently, there has been a rise in terrorist activity in the region related to mining activity. Mines have been intentionally collapsed, roads have been blocked, and bridges have been compromised. There is little dialogue or communication between local tribes and mining companies. Also, some local tribes have begun to illegally mine (on privately owned lands) as a means to compensate their income. Jharkhand is one of India’s largest coal producing regions. Jharkhand is home to a range of hunter-gatherers, shifting agriculturists, artisans, and settled agriculturists. Many of these tribes have been displaced in the past due to mining, dams, and rapid urbanization since India’s independence. The rich natural resources of the region offer a path out of poverty and the possibility of development. The network of state and federal regulations create a system that often overlaps and increases costs. Furthermore there is a 30% corporate tax rate.

The region is home to over 32 million people, along with rich river basins and forests, which are home to tigers, Asian elephants, and a vast range of flora and fauna. There are many large national parks, but these also lie on top of coal reserves. As a whole, India’s reserves for barite, bauxite, chromite, coal, limestone, and manganese are in the top ten in the world.

Recently, there has been a rise in terrorist activity in the region related to mining activity. Mines have been intentionally collapsed, roads have been blocked, and bridges have been compromised. There is little dialogue or communication between local tribes and mining companies. Also, some local tribes have begun to illegally mine (on privately owned lands) as a means to supplement their income. Activity Salwar Kamiz Sari Men: Salwar Men: dhotis
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