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World War II
Transcript of World War II
WORLD WAR II
Causes of WWII
Events of WWII
Rationing begins in the UK
German "Blitzkrieg overwhelms Holland, Belgium, and France
Churchill becomes prime minister of Britain
British victory at Battle of Britain forces Hitler to postpone invasion
Hitler begins the invasion of Russia
Invasion of Britain's major cities continues
Allies take Tobruk, North Africa and resist German attack
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, US enters the war.
Germany suffers setbacks at Stalingrad and El Alamein
Singapore falls to the Japanese
Murder of Jewish people begins at Auschwitz
American naval victory at the Battle of Midway marks the turning point in the Pacific Ocean
surrender at Stalingrad marks Germany's first major defeat
Allied victory in North Africa allows for the invasion of Italy
Italy surrenders, Germany takes over battle
British and Indian forces fight Japanese in Burma
Allies land at Anzio
soviet offensive gathers pace in Eastern Europe
D-Day: Allied invasion of France, Paris is liberated in August
Guam liberated by the US Okinawa, Iwo Jima bombed
Auschwitz liberated by Soviet troops
Russians reach Berlin: Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders on May 7th
Truman becomes president after Roosevelt's death.
Japan surrenders after atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1. Hitler's idea of a superior race
2. German defeat in World War 1
3. Jews in Germany
4. Jewish Persecution Under the Nazis
5. "The Final Solution"
Jews in Germany
Before World War 2, Jews contributed significantly to the German economy. Although there were only 500,000 Jews in Germany, proportionally they held a greater sliver of power. Hitler saw these successful Jews as a disgrace, claiming they were depriving the members of the "master race" from holding these positions.
Jewish Persecution in Nazi Germany
Jews were persecuted from the beginning of the Nazi regime. Soon after the Nazis took power, Jewish stores were forbidden from conducting business. The persecution only got stricter. Soon, stores were prohibited from selling products made by Jews.
German Defeat in WWI
World War 1 left Germany in shambles. Germans were angry, as they had suffered heavy losses and their sense of patriotism was greatly wounded. Hitler was a charismatic and persuasive speaker, and could effectively persuade his audience. The Germans needed someone to blame for the hardships the country had faced, and the Jewish community became an easy target.
The Master Race
Hitler believed that all Germans were decedents of the master race, the Aryans. In this class system, Jews were considered subhuman, even if they were German citizens. His ultimate goal was to create an empire of Aryan decedents, and the Jews stood in his way.
The "Final" Solution
Hitler proposed what he called, "The Final Solution", the extermination of all the Jews across the Third Reich. The final result of this would be an empire of Aryans, or what Hitler considered "the master race."
Additional Examples of Genocide
Pol Pot Cambodia
Rape of Nanking
Stalin's Forced Famine
Armenians in Turkey
WHAT IS GENOCIDE?
1. Aggression by totalitarian powers of
Germany, Italy, and Japan
2. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles
3. Failure and weakness of the League of
4. Failure of appeasement
5. Tendencies towards isolationism and
pacifism in Europe and the US
Failure of the Treaty of Versailles
World War I...GERMANY'S FAULT.
The restrictions set by the Treaty crippled Germany. :(
ANGST was the result...the German people were pretty unhappy
Aggression from Germany, Japan, and Italy
Germany did what she wanted and completely defied the Treaty of Versailles.
Began occupying/reclaiming areas prohibited by the Treaty
Made alliances with Japan and Italy
Manchuria and Abyssinia Crisis...
February 1932: Japan invaded Manchuria
October 1935: Italy invaded Abyssinia
BOTH DEFIED COMMANDS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
Failure of Appeasement
Some British and French politicians saw the Treaty of Versailles as unfair...
Rearmament = Germany's need for protection
Stronger Germany = NO spread of Communism
Neville Chamberlain thought that a number of issues needed to be put right. He gave into Germany's demands in order to prevent war...
Munich Agreement of September 1938
Failure of the League of Nations
Not all countries joined the League of Nations
Unable to act quickly
Took the League a YEAR to send a commission
Couldn't send an army.
League could only ban arms sales
Offered Italy a part of Abyssinia
Possible secret treatyto give all of Abyssinia to Italy (Hoare-Laval Pact)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower
George C. Marshall
32nd US President (1933-1945)
At beginning of war, declared NEUTRALITY, but tried to make aid available to Allied countries.
Attack on Pearl Harbor: "day of infamy" speech
Advocated for a "grand alliance" against Axis Powers: Declaration of the United Nations (1942)
Died in April of 1945 from cerebral hemorrhage
33rd US President (1945-1953)
Brought the Europe and Pacific War to an end
Authorized the use of the atomic bomb on Japan
Truman Doctrine (1947): pledged US support for countries resisting totalitarian regimes
34th US President (1953-1961)
General of forces in Europe at the time of WWII
Commanded Allied forces in the landing in North Africa, D-Day, and the invasion of France
Became President in 1953
General of forces in the Pacific
Defense of Philippines
Named Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan
Directed Allied occupation of Japan
Prime Minister of Britain (1940-1945)
Stirring speeches to the British Parliament and people
Advocated for the Lend-Lease Act in US
Chief architect for Allied Victory
Dictator of the Soviet Union (1929-1953)
Transformed Soviet Union into an industrial superpower
Signed nonaggression pact with Hitler
Annexed Poland, Romania, Baltic States
Participated in Allied conferences after German invasion
Appointed to Chief of Staff (1939-1945)
Formulated the Marshall Plan (unprecedented program of economic and military aid to foreign nations)
Supervised atomic studies
Resigned in 1945
Japanese Prime Minister (1941-1944)
Advocated for push south in Far East
Authorized Pearl Harbor attack
Later half of war, Tojo "lost control" and resigned
Executed as a war criminal in 1948
Emperor of Japan (1926-1989)
Regarded as divine by the Japanese
Very little power...
Had to consent to decision to attack the United States
Appears to have favored peace...
First time Japanese people heard the voice of the emperor: radio broadcast announcing surrender
Dictator of Germany (1934-1945)
Instigator of WWII
Advocated for German nationalism, lebensraum, Social Darwinism...
"enemies" = inferiors
Broke constraints of Treaty of Versailles