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WWI - The Battle Of Ypres
Transcript of WWI - The Battle Of Ypres
The Second battle of Ypres Consisted of four seperate engagments.
- The Battle of Gravenstafel: Thursday 22 April – Friday 23 April 1915.
- The Battle of St Julien: Saturday 24 April – 4 May 1915.
- The Battle of Frezenberg: 8–13 May 1915.
- The Battle of Bellewaarde: 24–25 May 1915. The third battle of ypres was one of the major battles in the first would war. Also known as the battle of Passchendale, it took place between July and November 1917.In a series of operations, Entente troops under British command attacked the Imperial German Army. The battle was fought for control of the village of Passchendale (modern name Passendale) near the town of Ypres in West Flanders, Belgium. The objective of the offensive was to achieve a breakthrough, outflanking the German Army’s defences, and forcing Germany to withdraw from the Channel Ports. The offensive also served to distract the German army from the French in the Aisne, who were suffering from widespread mutiny. Passchendaele has become synonymous with the misery of grinding attrition warfare fought in thick mud. Most of the battle took place on reclaimed marshland, swampy even without rain. The summer of 1917 was unusually cold and wet, and heavy artillery bombardment destroyed the surface of the land. Though there were dry periods, mud was nevertheless a constant feature of the landscape; newly-developed tanks bogged down in mud, and soldiers often drowned in it.
In 2003, the British band Iron Maiden paid tribute to the men who died on the battlefields of Passchendaele by recording a song entitled Paschendale. The song is told from the perspective of a soldier who died during the battle. It depicts life in the trenches, and many other experiences soldiers underwent such as getting shot at by machine guns and airplanes.
Battle of Passchendaele is perhaps the most common name for the campaign in English, but is not universally used. Third Battle of Ypres' was the name adopted by the British Official History of the First World War. The German history uses the term Third Flanders Battle (German: Dritte Flandernschlacht), while the French term is Second Battle of Flanders (French: 2ème Bataille des Flandres)
When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of World War I, Canada, as a Dominion within the British Empire, declared war as well. McCrae was appointed as a field surgeon in the Canadian artillery and was in charge of a field hospital during the Second Battle of Ypres in 1915. McCrae's friend and former student, Lt. Alexis Helmer, was killed in the battle, and his burial inspired the poem, "In Flanders Fields", which was written on May 3, 1915 and first published in the magazine Punch.
Facts The strategy of both the Allied and German armies is not entirely clear. The accepted and mainstream reasoning for the Ypres battle was the British desire to secure the English Channel ports and the British Army's supply lines; Ypres was the last major obstacle to the German advance on Boulogne-sur-Mer and Calais. The French strategy revolved around a desire to prevent German forces from outflanking the Allied front from the north. This was the last major German option, after their defeats at the First Battle of the Aisne and First Battle of the Marne. The Ypres campaign became the culmination point of the Race to the Sea. The opposing Armies both engaged in offensive operations until the major German offensive occurred in mid-October, which forced the Allies onto the strategic defensive and limited to counter-attacks The battle highlighted problems in command and control for both sides, with each of the Armies missing opportunities to win a significant decision early on. The Germans in particular overestimated the numbers and strength of the Allied defences at Ypres, and called off their last offensive too early. The Battle was also significant as it witnessed the destruction of the highly experienced and trained British regular army. Having suffered enormous losses for its small size, "The Old Contemptibles" disappeared to be replaced by fresh reserves which eventually turned into a mass conscripted Army to match its Allies and enemies.
The result was a victory for the Allies, although losses were particularly heavy on both sides. The Germans called the battle "The Massacre of the Innocents of Ypres" (in German Kindermord bei Ypern) as most of the German casualties were a mixture of young inexperienced and highly trained reserves. The end of the battle marked the end of mobile operations until 1918.
The scene of the battles was the Ypres salient on the Western Front, where the Allied line which followed the canal bulged eastward around the town of Ypres, Belgium. North of the salient were the Belgians; covering the northern part of the salient itself were two French divisions (one Metropolitan and one Algerian) The eastern part of the salient was defended by one Canadian division and two UK divisions. In total during the battles, the British Commonwealth forces were the II and V Corps of the Second Army made up of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavalry divisions, and the 4th, 27th, 28th, 50th, Lahore and 1st Canadian Divisions
On 24 May the Germans released a gas attack on a 4.5-mile (7.2 km) front. British troops were able to defend against initial German attacks but eventually they were forced to retreat to the north and south. Failed British counterattacks forced a British retreat 1000 yards northwards. Upon the end of the battle the Ypres salient was 3 miles (4.8 km) deep.
The Germans had moved their artillery forward and put three Army corps opposite the 27th and 28th divisions on the Frezenberg ridge. The battle began on May 8 with a bombardment that disrupted the 83rd Brigade holding trenches on the forward side of the ridge but the first and second assaults by German infantry were repelled by the survivors. The third German assault of the morning pushed the defenders back. While the neighbouring 80th Brigade stopped the advance, the 84th Brigade was broken giving a two mile gap in the line. Further advance was stopped through counterattacks and a night move by the 10th Brigade. On the 9th the German attack was across the Menin road against the 27 Division. On the 10 of May the Germans released another gas cloud but made little progress. The battle ended after six days of fighting with a German advance of 2000 yards.
The village of St. Julien had been comfortably in the rear of the 1st Canadian Division until the poison gas attack of 22 April, whereupon it became the front line. Some of the first fighting in the village involved a hasty stop, which included the stand of Lance Corporal Frederick Fisher of the 13th Battalion CEF's machine-gun detachment; who twice went out with a handful of men and a Colt Machine-gun and prevented advancing German troops from passing through St. Julien into the rear of the Canadian front line. Fisher was awarded the VC for his actions on the 22nd, but was killed when he attempted to repeat his actions on the 23; this was the first of 70 Canadian VCs awarded in the First World War. On the morning of 24 April 1915 the Germans released another cloud of chlorine gas, this time directly towards the re-formed Canadian lines just west of the village of St. Julien. On seeing the approach of the greenish-grey gas cloud, word was passed among the Canadian troops to urinate on their handkerchiefs and place these over their noses and mouths. Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger, V.C., M.D. Capt. Scrimger, with the 2nd Canadian Field Ambulance, may have passed the order to use urine to counteract the gas, but there is some doubt (see note 10). Captain Scrimger received a Victoria Cross for other actions on 25 April.However, the countermeasures were ineffective and the Canadian lines broke as a result of the attack, allowing German troops to take the village. The following day the York and Durham Brigade units of the Northumberland Division counterattacked failing to secure their objectives but establishing a new line close to the village. The third day the Northumberland Brigade attacked again, briefly taking part of the village but forced back with the loss of more than 1,900 men and 40 officers - two thirds of its strength. The 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers Battalion suffered heavily, incurring hundreds of casualties and with no respite took part in the next two subsidiary battles at Frezenberg and Bellewaarde. On 24 May the battalion was subject to a German chlorine gas attack near Saint Julien and effectively disintegrated as a fighting unit. Belleware Frezenberg St. Julian At around 5:00 pm on April 22, 1915, the German Army released one hundred and sixty eight tons of chlorine gas over a 6.5 km (4 mile) front on the part of the line held by French Territorial and colonial Moroccan and Algerian troops of the French 45th and 78th divisions. While this is often recognized as the first use of chemical warfare, poison gases were used at several earlier battles, including the Battle of Bolimov three months earlier. The attack involved a massive logistical effort, as German troops hauled 5730 cylinders of chlorine gas, weighing ninety pounds each, to the front by hand. The German soldiers also opened the cylinders by hand, relying on the prevailing winds to carry the gas towards enemy lines. Because of this method of dispersal, a large number of German soldiers were injured or killed in the process of carrying out the attack.. Approximately 6,000 French and colonial troops died within ten minutes at Ypres, primarily from asphyxiation and subsequent tissue damage in the lungs. Many more were blinded. Chlorine gas forms hydrochloric (muriatic) acid when combined with water, destroying moist tissues such as lungs and eyes.The chlorine gas, being denser than air, quickly filled the trenches, forcing the troops to climb out into heavy enemy fireWith the survivors abandoning their positions en masse, a 4-mile (6.4 km) gap was left in the front line. However, the German High Command had not foreseen the effectiveness of their new weapon, and so had not put any reserves ready in the area.] German troops started to enter the gap at 5:00PM in some numbers, but with the coming of darkness and the lack of follow up troops the German forces did not exploit the gap, and Canadian troops were able to put in a hasty defence by urinating into cloths and putting them to their faces to counter the effects of the gas. Canadians held that part of the line against further attacks until 3 May 1915 at a cost of 6000 wounded or dead. Casualties were especially heavy for the 13th Battalion of the CEF, which was enveloped on three sides and over-extended by the demands of securing its left flank once the Algerian Division had broken. One thousand of these "original" troops were killed and 4,975 were wounded from an initial strength of 10,000. At Kitcheners' Wood, the 10th Battalion of the 2nd Canadian Brigade was ordered to counter-attack into the gap created by the gas attack. They formed up after 11:00pm on the night of 22 April with the 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish) of the 3rd Brigade arriving as they were forming, tasked to support the advance. Both battalions stepped off with over 800 men, formed up in waves of two companies each, at 11:46 pm. Without prior reconnaissance, the battalions ran into obstacles half way to the objective and drew heavy automatic weapons fire from the Wood, prompting an impromptu bayonet charge. Their attack cleared the former oak plantation of Germans at the cost of 75 percent casualties. The Canadian actions during the Battle of Gravenstafel are commemorated with the Saint Julien Memorial in the village of Saint Julien
Gravenstafel After the war the town was rebuilt using money paid by Germany in reparations, with the main square, including the Cloth Hall and town hall, being rebuilt as close to the original designs as possible. (The rest of the rebuilt town is more modern in appearance.) The Cloth Hall today is home to In Flanders Fields MuseumIn Flanders Fields MuseumThe In Flanders' Fields Museum is devoted to the study of World War I and occupies the second floor of the Cloth Hall, Ypres in Belgium. The building was virtually destroyed by artillery fire during the Battles of Ypres and has been reconstructed. The curator, Piet Chielens, is a World War I... dedicated to ypres's role in the First World War. Today, Ieper is a small city in the very western part of Belgium, the so-called Westhoek. Ieper these days has the title of "city of peace" and maintains a close friendship with another town on which war had a profound impact: HiroshimaHiroshimais the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest island of Japan. It became the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States of America dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M. on August 6, 1945,... Both towns witnessed warfare at its worst: Ieper was one of the first places where Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. This type of warfare is distinct from Nuclear warfare and Biological warfare, which together are the three tenets of , the military acronym for Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical... was employedSecond Battle of YpresThe Second Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in the First World War and the first time a former colonial force pushed back a major European power on European soil, which occurred in the battle of St... while Hiroshima suffered the debut of nuclear warfareNuclear warfareNuclear warfare, or atomic warfare, is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weapons are used. Compared to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare is vastly more destructive in range and extent of damage... The city governments of Ieper and Hiroshima advocate for cities never to be targets again and campaign for the abolition of nuclear weapons. The City of Ieper hosts the international campaign secretariat of Mayors for Peace, an international Mayoral organization mobilizing cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020. Mayors for Peace 2020 Vision Campaign English-speaking soldiers in that war often referred to Ieper/Ypres by the deliberate misreading Wipers. British soldiers even self-published a wartime newspaper called the "Wipers Times". The Wipers Times was a trench magazine that was published by soldiers fighting on the front lines of the First World War.It was produced by English soldiers from the 12th Battalion Sherwood Foresters , 24th Division British Armies in France. 1. The First Battle of Ypres was also known as passchendale. It was a first world was battle fought for the town Ypres in Western Belgium. The battle began on October 19th and went untill November 22nd 1914
2. Was the strategy of the allied and German armies clear in the first battle of Ypres?
No it was not.
3. What was the end result of the first battle of Ypres?
The allies won
4. Which of the three battles marked the end of mobile operations until 1918?
5. The first Battle of Ypres was the first time Germany utilized poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front in the First World War. (True / False)
6. How many different engagements did the second battle of Ypres consist of? What were the names of these Battles?
4, Gravenstafel, St. Julian, Frezenberg and Belleware
7. Who was John McCrea? What did he do in the war? and What is he famous for?
A canadian Solider. Worked in the hospital. His poem in flanders fields.
8. In 2003 , the British band Iron Maiden paid tribute to the men who died on the battlefields of Passchendaele by recording a song entitled Paschendale
9. What names are used to refer to the Third battle of ypres? Which Country uses which name?
The battle of Passchendaele is used By English. The Third battle of Ypres is used by the British who adopted the name. Third Flanders Battle is used by the Germans. The second battle of Flanders is used by the french.
13. nruecalr rerfawa
15. Was the town of Ypres rebuilt? and if so when?
yes, right after world war 1.