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Transcript of Fossil Fuels
21st Century Types of Fossil Fuels Where they Came From Carboniferous Period
286 Million Years Ago The Boom of Fossil Fuels/ Industrial Era Drilling/Fracking/Mining Drilling The Fossil Fuel Addiction The Future! Coal Oil Natural Gas What Are Fossil Fuels? Types of Coal: Defined: Concentrated organic compounds found in the Earth’s crust created from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago in the form of biomass. Source: Institute for Energy Research at http://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/energy-overview/fossil-fuels/ This includes:
- Oil (Petroleum)
- Natural Gas - Lignite
- Antracite Source: The Department of Energy at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/gen_coal.html Extracting its Energy 50% of Electricity in the U.S. Process: 1.) Combusted to boil water
2.) Steam is released to a steam turbine
3.) Electricity is transmitted Source: TEEIC at
http://teeic.anl.gov/er/coal/restech/uses/index.cfm Defined: a dark combustible material formed through coalification, primarily composed of C, H, O and N Defined: A naturally-occurring flammable mixture of hydrocarbons found in geologic formations, consisting primarily of paraffins and naphthenes (C + H) Source: Dr. Helmestein at
http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/Petroleum-Definition.htm Refinery Process: Source: Elmhurst College at
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/513refining.html Defined: A combustible mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, the EPA specifies that it must have > 70% methane by volume or must have a gross calorific value (GCV) between 950 and 1100 Btu/scf. -- It usually must be refined to separate out other hydrocarbons Source: Environmental Protection Agency at
http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/emissions/gasdef.html Uses - Production of gasoline (47%);
- Heating oil and diesel fuel (23%);
- Petrochemical feedstock (products derived from petroleum) for the manufacturing of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and plastics (18%);
- Jet fuel (10%);
- Propane (4%); and
- Asphalt (3%). Source: TEEIC at http://teeic.anl.gov/er/oilgas/restech/uses/index.cfm Reserves Oil and Gas: formed from marine organisms in sea-floor sediments Coal: formed from remains of land vegetation For Peat to become coal, it must be buried by sediment. Burial squeezes out water.
Addition of heat and time cause elements to be extracted from the peat, and as these elements disperse the peat becomes more carbon-rich. plant debris
graphite The introduction of the steam engine
gave rise to:
- faster shipping by sea
-expansion of the railroad network
-coal-driven engines Fossil fuel use began to rise
in the late 18th century. Source: CRC at
http://crc.nv.gov/docs/world%20fossil%20reserves.pdf The Supply Natural Gas Oil Coal Shift to Natural Gas Fossil Fuels have been used for centuries The Hopi Indians during the 1300s used coal for
cooking, heating and to bake clay pottery. Coal was later rediscovered in the United States by explorers in 1673.
However, commercial coal mines did not start operation until the 1740s in Virginia. Fracking Mining Fracking Air Pollution Uses: Source: World Records Institute at
- 50% Less Co2
- Quick Transition through Retrofitting Source: Alan Riley, Ph.D at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/14/opinion/shale-gas-to-the-climate-rescue.html Primary Recovery Secondary Recovery A deep well is dug by an Oil Rig Metal pipes, called casing, are placed into the hole A 'Christmas Tree' of wires is installed on top of the well to regulate flow of the petrolium In this step, Oil is recovered using natural processes, such as:
- Natural water displacement
- Expansion of natural gas
- Gravity drainage 5-15% of the oil is recovered during this stage As pressure in the well falls, more intensive drilling mechanisms are necessary Secondary Recovery aims to increase pressure in the well by:
- water injection
- natural gas reinjection
- gas lift: injecting air, carbon dioxide, or other gas nitrous oxide sulfur dioxide loss of habitat Water contamination Air Pollution water contamination loss of habitat http://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/We-are-Decades-Away-from-a-Cure-for-our-Fossil-Fuel-Addiction.html The Addiction Explained: "Giant new oil and gas fields are being mined, steamed and drilled with new technologies. Some of the reserves have been known to exist for decades but were inaccessible either economically or technologically"
and that will lead to
"hundreds of billions of barrels of recoverable reserves to market" And Reserves will only increase...
http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/daniel-yergin-for-the-future-of-oil-look-to-the-americas-not-the-middle-east/2011/10/18/gIQAxdDw7L_story_2.html Source: Clifford Klauss at Other Articles on Reserves: There are many other ideas: http://www.cbs.umn.edu/cbs-highlights/driven-discover/how-make-green-fossil-fuels Making Fossil Fuels 'Renewable': Source: The University of Minnesota at Increased Regulations: http://www.bna.com/reelection-greenlights-host-n17179870805/ Source: Dean Scott at http://www.economist.com/node/21554501 The Problem: Costs http://www.wri.org/project/carbon-dioxide-capture-storage What is CCS? co2 many more During this time, much of the Earth was covered with marshy swamps, rich with plant life. As more and more time passed, sediments started settling on top of the decomposing plant matter. The weight of these layers of rock increased the pressure, and with the right amount of pressure and time, fossil fuels were formed. Over time, the plants died, settled, and decomposed. This explains why Oil and Natural Gas are most often found in oceans or deep underground dried up river basins. This is why coal is found in mountain ranges http://www.discoveringfossils.co.uk/fossilfuels.htm