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Scottish English

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Virginia Castiglione

on 5 June 2015

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Transcript of Scottish English

But... why?
Why is Scots no longer the written language of Edinburgh or Glasgow? And why is Standard English dominant throughout the British Isles?
Historically, the answer lies in the South, in seventeenth and eighteenth century London. It was from here that the English Crown, consolidating is rule throughout a barely united kingdom, encouraged the spread of Southern English at the expense of regional varieties. English first became refined and standardized as the de facto language of power and learning – to the permanent disadvantage of alternative regional varieties of English like Scots.
SCOTTISH COLONIZATION
The reason the Romans abandoned Britain was connected with the
large-scale migrations
of people that had begun in
Northern Europe
. The invasion of England by Germanic settlers (the
Anglo-Saxons
) was itself part of the migrational pattern, which continued during the following centuries (AD 400-800). Scotland experienced INVASION and SETTLEMENT from THREE SIDES during this period:
Scotland was originally a
Celtic
territory. This is true in several respects. When the Romans left Britain, much of the area now known as Scotland was inhabited and controlled by Celts closely related to those encountered by the Anglo-Saxons. The language they spoke was
Brythonic Celtic
, an
ancestor of modern Welsh
(Strathclyde Welsh). In the
northern
and
Eastern
area were the
Picts
– another Celtic group about whom little is known.
Móran taing!
Scottish English
Scots is one of the oldest, richest and most interesting varieties of English, with a pedigree that dates back to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the sixth and seventh centuries.
The Scots tongue has been largely neglected and the revival of its poetry is often treated as artificial.
Today, you will hear a Scots accent throughout the country, but the language of Scottish newspapers, Scottish government and Scottish education is Standard English.
The Older Scottish tongue has lost its place in written language.

Scottish English
From the sixth century to the present day.
Celts from Ireland
The first people to arrive during the
fifth century
. They settled in
Western Scotland
and spoke a
Goidelic Celtic language
closely related to modern Welsh.
Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria
By the
seventh century
, they expanded Northward and settled in Southern Scotland, gradually spreading westwards to
South-Western Scotland
.
A variety of English
has been spoken in this area for almost as long as in England.
Scandinavia
The third wave of invasion came from Scandinavia in
the eighth century
. The
northern islands
of Shetland and Orkney, together with
part of the Scottish mainland
, became a central part of the viking world, linking Norway with Iceland. They were
Norse-speaking
.
By the tenth century, we have five LINGUISTIC GROUPS in Scotland
1) The remains of the original
Pictish
people.
2) The remains of the original
Welsh
people
3) The newer
Scottish Gaelic
people
4) The
Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria
5)
Norse-speaking people
in Northern extremities.
Of the five tenth-century linguistic groups, the dominant one was the
Scottish Gaelic
.
They had developed a
centralized Gaelic-speaking monarchy
.
In contemporary accounts, these Gaelic people and their language were referred to as
SCOTS
or
SCOTTISH
.
ANGLO-NORMAN COLONIZATION
It was the result of an invitation rather than by force. The Scottish kings welcomed refugees from the Norman conquest after 1066 and adopted their military and town building skills, which they admired.
New towns were established and they were populated by English-speaking merchants.
Listening Activity
ATTEMPT AT MILITARY CONQUEST
England made an attempt at military conquest in the
thirteenth century
. The
King Edward I
pursued a claim to the throne of Scotland, but the English were defeated by Scottish leaders Bruce and Wallace at the
Battle of Bannockburn
in
1314
. This stimulated a
fierce patriotism
based on hostility to England.
After Bannockburn, Scotland can be described as an
independent "state" from England
for many years, with
its own educational, legal and administrative institutions.
Inglis
During this period, Inglis was cultivated as the language of the Scottish state, based at Edinburgh.
From 1494, Inglis came to be referred to as Scots or Scottish, reflecting the fact that it was the language of the state - and not Gaelic.
A literature in this language flourished.
But it seems both English and Gaelic were understood throughout Scotland.
FIRST STEP IN COLONIZATION:
POLITICAL INCORPORATION
Queen Elizabeth I died childless in 1603 and King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England.
James had to reside in England and not Scotland.
United formally as the State of Great Britain in 1707, a settlement which divided Scots.
UNIFICATION OF THE CROWNS
In the process of political incorporation it was English rather than Scots that came to be prestigious in Scotland.
During the
eighteenth century
, the idea of sophistication and polite speech was South-Eastern English speech.
Scots continued to be used a
mong the working classes, especially in rural areas.
SECOND STEP:
NATIONALIST REACTION
Scottish national identity can be associated either with
1)
Highland (Gaelic)

culture
or
2)
Lowland (formerly known as Inglis) culture.
THE HIGHLANDS
Gaelic culture has remained the strongest in the
mountainous or peripheral areas of Scotland
known as
Highlands and Islands
. A Gaelic culture similar to that of Ireland has survived here until
the defeat
of the Highland chieftains during the
Jacobite Uprising
in
1745
. In the next 100 years or so, the Highlands were forcibly depopulated and much of that culture is lost.
THE JACOBITE UPRISING
(
1745
) It brought Highland pride to its lowest ebb.
Charles Edward Stuart
(also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Young Pretender) tried to reclaim the throne from Hanoverian hands.
In order to do this, he enlisted the help of Highland chieftains, but they were finally defeated by the English in the
Battle of Culloden
.
THE DECLINE OF HIGHLAND CULTURE
Before 1745
, Highlanders were mainly known for their
military prowess
.
After 1745
, they were
prohibited
from
carrying firearms
, wear
Highland dress
and
play the pipes
.
They governed by Lowland lawyers at Edinburgh.
The
Scottish Church (Kirk)
also suffered.
Many emigrated. This had a profound impact on the Canadian province of
Nova Scotia
.
LINGUISTIC IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF GAELIC CULTURE
Virtually all of the Highlanders have been anglicized.
Only in the remote
Outer Hebrides
, for instance in the island of Barra, can we still hear Scots Gaelic and its soft, musical lilt that is similar to that of Irish English.
SCOTS GAELIC
Scots Gaelic has been a persecuted language for two hundred years.
Highlanders have never forgotten that the Jacobite Revolt was used as a pretext to impose the English way of life.
The Highlander was not permitted to practice his language, be educated through Gaelic mediums or wear his native dress after 1745.
ANGLICIZATION
The process just described, which produced
widespread Gaelic/English bilingualism
, can be seen as
Anglicization
.
It paralleled the situation in Ireland: The destruction of Gaelic culture was accompanied by
a supremacist attitude which saw Highlanders as savages
. This attitude, ironically, was held more strongly among Scots than Londoners.
THE LOWLANDS
The Scots of the Lowlands
The Scots of the Lowlands was originally a
northern variety of English
brought there by the
Angles of Northumbria
.
By
the tenth century
, largely thanks to the effort of the Scotti, the kingdom was more or less unified and mostly Celtic-speaking.
King David I of Scotland introduced the
Anglo-Norman burgh
(a colony or town surrounding Scotland). The burghs were English-speaking and mark the beginning of Scots English.
SCOTS
The case for Scots as a national language of a newly independent state is based on a nationalist interpretation of history.
Although it was originally a variety of Northumbrian English, it became the language of an independent state in the Late Middle Ages.
It has its own range of dialects, each with its own spelling conventions.
THE OLDER SCOTTISH TONGUE
In the North, there was a process at work that was making the Scottish language and literature as distinctive from English as, say, Portuguese is from Spanish. This language comes to us in various documents and is called the Older Scottish Tongue. The golden age for its literature is considered to be from 1376 to 1603.
WHY DID THE OLDER SCOTTISH TONGUE FINALLY MEET ITS DEMISE?
From the
middle of the sixteenth century
onwards, Scottish literary figures started imitating English literature.
The
decisive blow
to the possibility of a Scots language came with
James VI's move to London.
The Scottish court, which had nurtured the literary life of the country, went with him and adopted the ways of the south.
THE BIBLE IN SCOTS
In
1983
,
William Lorimer
published a translation of the New Testament into Scots. Its uses of about twelve varieties of Scots demonstrated the range and vigour of the Scots tongue.
Fun fact:
The only one to speak Standard English in this translation is the Devil.
SCOTTISH INFLUENCE OUTSIDE OF SCOTLAND
Scottish immigrations have significantly affected the language and genetic stock of these countries:
Ireland
The United States
Upper Canada
Nova Scotia (Canada)
Australia
Africa
New Zealand
LINGUISTIC FEATURES
PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES
1)
Rhoticity:
a strongly retroflex or rolled /r/
2)
Glottal stops:
Many speakers substitute /t/ and sometimes /k/ and /p/ (between two vowels) for a glottal stop.
3)
Dipthongs:
some speakers change/ai/ for /ei/. E.g.: “bite” /beit/, pie “pei/”
4)
Some dipthongs become monothongs
/eiɪ/ = /e/ “face” /fes/
/ou/ = /o/ “coat” /kot/
5)
No distinction between /u/ and /u:/.
The lack of vowel length contrasts so that words like full and fool are homophones.
PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES
6)
Retention of the /h/ sound in words like beginning with “wh”
. E.g.: which /hwich/; whale /hweil/
7)
Lack of English sound /3:/
. E.g.: “heard” /herd/ ; “bird” /bard/ or /bird/
8)
No difference between front and back “a” sounds (/æ/ and /a:/).
“Sam” and “palm” are pronounced in the same way.
9)
No difference between “o” sounds (/o:/ and /ɔo/).
“Cot” and “caught” are pronounced in the same way.
10)
The inherited sound /x/ is still found in traditional varieties,
in words like “technical”, “patriarch”
LEXICAL FEATURES
The vocabulary of Scottish English is rich in borrowings from both Gaelic (cf. loch ‘lake’, burach ‘mess’, cailleach ‘old woman’) and Old Norse (cf. bern for ‘child’)
Specific lexical items: “outwith” (outside of); “wee” (small); “pinkie” (little finger); “janitor” (caretaker). Pinkie and janitor also found in American English.
Expressions: “it’s your shot” for “it’s your turn”
“how?” = “why?” “why not?” = “how no?”
Scotticisms: “she learnt him some manners” (she taught him some manners)
“Whaur dae ye bide?” (where do you live)
“Caw canny” (go easy)
“awrite!” (hi!)
“A’m tint” (I’m lost)
GRAMMATICAL FEATURES
The
passive
is often formed with
“get”
: I got told off; it is often used for compulsion: You’ve got to speak to her.
The
pronoun with -self is used non-reflexively
: Himself isn’t at home yet for The man of the house is not at home yet.
The
abbreviated form of am + not is “amn’t
”, as in Amn’t I right?
Prepositions: compound preposition “off of”
(“Take that off of the table”) or “I was waiting on you” instead of “I was waiting for you”.

ANALYSIS OF THE VIDEO

Rhoticity:
a strongly retroflex or rolled /r/, in all positions.

Examples:
narrow, number, fourteen, there, year, first, etc.
Glottal stops:
substituting /t/ with a glottal stop.

Examples:
it’s a book that I really…; shorter; Beauty and the Beast, etc.
/ai/ changes into/ei/

Examples:
finding, bright-spined, Little Red Riding Hood, etc.
/ou/ changes into /o/


Examples:
so, also, knowing, grow, sold, etc.
No difference between /æ/ and /a:/

Examples:
have, part, stand, Angela Carter, etc.

("Thank you" in Scots Gaelic)
Full transcript