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Transcript of Scottish English
Why is Scots no longer the written language of Edinburgh or Glasgow? And why is Standard English dominant throughout the British Isles?
Historically, the answer lies in the South, in seventeenth and eighteenth century London. It was from here that the English Crown, consolidating is rule throughout a barely united kingdom, encouraged the spread of Southern English at the expense of regional varieties. English first became refined and standardized as the de facto language of power and learning – to the permanent disadvantage of alternative regional varieties of English like Scots.
The reason the Romans abandoned Britain was connected with the
of people that had begun in
. The invasion of England by Germanic settlers (the
) was itself part of the migrational pattern, which continued during the following centuries (AD 400-800). Scotland experienced INVASION and SETTLEMENT from THREE SIDES during this period:
Scotland was originally a
territory. This is true in several respects. When the Romans left Britain, much of the area now known as Scotland was inhabited and controlled by Celts closely related to those encountered by the Anglo-Saxons. The language they spoke was
ancestor of modern Welsh
(Strathclyde Welsh). In the
area were the
– another Celtic group about whom little is known.
Scots is one of the oldest, richest and most interesting varieties of English, with a pedigree that dates back to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the sixth and seventh centuries.
The Scots tongue has been largely neglected and the revival of its poetry is often treated as artificial.
Today, you will hear a Scots accent throughout the country, but the language of Scottish newspapers, Scottish government and Scottish education is Standard English.
The Older Scottish tongue has lost its place in written language.
From the sixth century to the present day.
Celts from Ireland
The first people to arrive during the
. They settled in
and spoke a
Goidelic Celtic language
closely related to modern Welsh.
Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria
, they expanded Northward and settled in Southern Scotland, gradually spreading westwards to
A variety of English
has been spoken in this area for almost as long as in England.
The third wave of invasion came from Scandinavia in
the eighth century
of Shetland and Orkney, together with
part of the Scottish mainland
, became a central part of the viking world, linking Norway with Iceland. They were
By the tenth century, we have five LINGUISTIC GROUPS in Scotland
1) The remains of the original
2) The remains of the original
3) The newer
Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria
in Northern extremities.
Of the five tenth-century linguistic groups, the dominant one was the
They had developed a
centralized Gaelic-speaking monarchy
In contemporary accounts, these Gaelic people and their language were referred to as
It was the result of an invitation rather than by force. The Scottish kings welcomed refugees from the Norman conquest after 1066 and adopted their military and town building skills, which they admired.
New towns were established and they were populated by English-speaking merchants.
ATTEMPT AT MILITARY CONQUEST
England made an attempt at military conquest in the
King Edward I
pursued a claim to the throne of Scotland, but the English were defeated by Scottish leaders Bruce and Wallace at the
Battle of Bannockburn
. This stimulated a
based on hostility to England.
After Bannockburn, Scotland can be described as an
independent "state" from England
for many years, with
its own educational, legal and administrative institutions.
During this period, Inglis was cultivated as the language of the Scottish state, based at Edinburgh.
From 1494, Inglis came to be referred to as Scots or Scottish, reflecting the fact that it was the language of the state - and not Gaelic.
A literature in this language flourished.
But it seems both English and Gaelic were understood throughout Scotland.
FIRST STEP IN COLONIZATION:
Queen Elizabeth I died childless in 1603 and King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England.
James had to reside in England and not Scotland.
United formally as the State of Great Britain in 1707, a settlement which divided Scots.
UNIFICATION OF THE CROWNS
In the process of political incorporation it was English rather than Scots that came to be prestigious in Scotland.
, the idea of sophistication and polite speech was South-Eastern English speech.
Scots continued to be used a
mong the working classes, especially in rural areas.
Scottish national identity can be associated either with
Lowland (formerly known as Inglis) culture.
Gaelic culture has remained the strongest in the
mountainous or peripheral areas of Scotland
Highlands and Islands
. A Gaelic culture similar to that of Ireland has survived here until
of the Highland chieftains during the
. In the next 100 years or so, the Highlands were forcibly depopulated and much of that culture is lost.
THE JACOBITE UPRISING
) It brought Highland pride to its lowest ebb.
Charles Edward Stuart
(also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Young Pretender) tried to reclaim the throne from Hanoverian hands.
In order to do this, he enlisted the help of Highland chieftains, but they were finally defeated by the English in the
Battle of Culloden
THE DECLINE OF HIGHLAND CULTURE
, Highlanders were mainly known for their
, they were
play the pipes
They governed by Lowland lawyers at Edinburgh.
Scottish Church (Kirk)
Many emigrated. This had a profound impact on the Canadian province of
LINGUISTIC IMPACT OF THE DECLINE OF GAELIC CULTURE
Virtually all of the Highlanders have been anglicized.
Only in the remote
, for instance in the island of Barra, can we still hear Scots Gaelic and its soft, musical lilt that is similar to that of Irish English.
Scots Gaelic has been a persecuted language for two hundred years.
Highlanders have never forgotten that the Jacobite Revolt was used as a pretext to impose the English way of life.
The Highlander was not permitted to practice his language, be educated through Gaelic mediums or wear his native dress after 1745.
The process just described, which produced
widespread Gaelic/English bilingualism
, can be seen as
It paralleled the situation in Ireland: The destruction of Gaelic culture was accompanied by
a supremacist attitude which saw Highlanders as savages
. This attitude, ironically, was held more strongly among Scots than Londoners.
The Scots of the Lowlands
The Scots of the Lowlands was originally a
northern variety of English
brought there by the
Angles of Northumbria
the tenth century
, largely thanks to the effort of the Scotti, the kingdom was more or less unified and mostly Celtic-speaking.
King David I of Scotland introduced the
(a colony or town surrounding Scotland). The burghs were English-speaking and mark the beginning of Scots English.
The case for Scots as a national language of a newly independent state is based on a nationalist interpretation of history.
Although it was originally a variety of Northumbrian English, it became the language of an independent state in the Late Middle Ages.
It has its own range of dialects, each with its own spelling conventions.
THE OLDER SCOTTISH TONGUE
In the North, there was a process at work that was making the Scottish language and literature as distinctive from English as, say, Portuguese is from Spanish. This language comes to us in various documents and is called the Older Scottish Tongue. The golden age for its literature is considered to be from 1376 to 1603.
WHY DID THE OLDER SCOTTISH TONGUE FINALLY MEET ITS DEMISE?
middle of the sixteenth century
onwards, Scottish literary figures started imitating English literature.
to the possibility of a Scots language came with
James VI's move to London.
The Scottish court, which had nurtured the literary life of the country, went with him and adopted the ways of the south.
THE BIBLE IN SCOTS
published a translation of the New Testament into Scots. Its uses of about twelve varieties of Scots demonstrated the range and vigour of the Scots tongue.
The only one to speak Standard English in this translation is the Devil.
SCOTTISH INFLUENCE OUTSIDE OF SCOTLAND
Scottish immigrations have significantly affected the language and genetic stock of these countries:
The United States
Nova Scotia (Canada)
a strongly retroflex or rolled /r/
Many speakers substitute /t/ and sometimes /k/ and /p/ (between two vowels) for a glottal stop.
some speakers change/ai/ for /ei/. E.g.: “bite” /beit/, pie “pei/”
Some dipthongs become monothongs
/eiɪ/ = /e/ “face” /fes/
/ou/ = /o/ “coat” /kot/
No distinction between /u/ and /u:/.
The lack of vowel length contrasts so that words like full and fool are homophones.
Retention of the /h/ sound in words like beginning with “wh”
. E.g.: which /hwich/; whale /hweil/
Lack of English sound /3:/
. E.g.: “heard” /herd/ ; “bird” /bard/ or /bird/
No difference between front and back “a” sounds (/æ/ and /a:/).
“Sam” and “palm” are pronounced in the same way.
No difference between “o” sounds (/o:/ and /ɔo/).
“Cot” and “caught” are pronounced in the same way.
The inherited sound /x/ is still found in traditional varieties,
in words like “technical”, “patriarch”
The vocabulary of Scottish English is rich in borrowings from both Gaelic (cf. loch ‘lake’, burach ‘mess’, cailleach ‘old woman’) and Old Norse (cf. bern for ‘child’)
Specific lexical items: “outwith” (outside of); “wee” (small); “pinkie” (little finger); “janitor” (caretaker). Pinkie and janitor also found in American English.
Expressions: “it’s your shot” for “it’s your turn”
“how?” = “why?” “why not?” = “how no?”
Scotticisms: “she learnt him some manners” (she taught him some manners)
“Whaur dae ye bide?” (where do you live)
“Caw canny” (go easy)
“A’m tint” (I’m lost)
is often formed with
: I got told off; it is often used for compulsion: You’ve got to speak to her.
pronoun with -self is used non-reflexively
: Himself isn’t at home yet for The man of the house is not at home yet.
abbreviated form of am + not is “amn’t
”, as in Amn’t I right?
Prepositions: compound preposition “off of”
(“Take that off of the table”) or “I was waiting on you” instead of “I was waiting for you”.
ANALYSIS OF THE VIDEO
a strongly retroflex or rolled /r/, in all positions.
narrow, number, fourteen, there, year, first, etc.
substituting /t/ with a glottal stop.
it’s a book that I really…; shorter; Beauty and the Beast, etc.
/ai/ changes into/ei/
finding, bright-spined, Little Red Riding Hood, etc.
/ou/ changes into /o/
so, also, knowing, grow, sold, etc.
No difference between /æ/ and /a:/
have, part, stand, Angela Carter, etc.
("Thank you" in Scots Gaelic)