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Transcript of Fluid Mechanics
6 liters of blood circulates every minute
=> flow rate is 100 cm3/s.
If the pressure averages 133,000 dynes/cm2
then the average power output is 13,300,000 ergs/s or 1.33 watts.
This is approximately 115,000 J per day, which is the energy the average (70 kg) person would have after falling from a 550 foot tall building! The Relationship of Cardiac Architecture to Ventricular Function MRI phase contrast velocity mapping (tissue phase mapping) of systolic and diastolic cardiac frames with a temporal resolution of 13.8 ms during free breathing in a in a healthy volunteer. All motions are described in the text; the arrows show the clockwise (marker to right) and counterclockwise (marker to left) directions of transmural twisting motion during the shortaxis view and are obtained during isovolumic contraction, mid systole, isovolumic “relaxation” phase, and slower filling in mid diastole. The Relationship of Cardiac Architecture to Ventricular Function b, Diffusion tensor MRI from the work of Zhukov and Barr59 showing the helical inner or endocardial (clockwise) and outer or epicardial (counterclockwise) fiber orientation (in purple and blue colors) and a central LV free wall in top chamber that is white to reflect a more horizontal or very small angle pitch that does not involve the septum. c, Diffusion tensor MRI from studies by Rohmer, Sitek, and Gullberg63 showing helical configuration of the right-handed helix endocardial (green) fibers obliquely coursing in a clockwise orientation toward the apex and lefthanded helix or epicardial (blue) fibers displaying a counterclockwise orientation. Ali Mousa
2008302006 Though weighing only 11 ounces on average, a healthy heart pumps 2,000 gallons of blood through 60,000 miles of blood vessels each day. The heart pumps blood to almost all of the body’s 75 trillion cells. Only the corneas receive no blood supply. Every day, the heart creates enough energy to drive a truck 20 miles. In a lifetime, that is equivalent to driving to the moon and back!!! Unscrolling of Torrent-Guasp’s myocardial band model, whereby his unwrapped heart (e) contains an oblique centerfold that separates the basal and apical loops. Note (1) the transverse basal loop fiber orientation (b through e), representing circumferential fibers, and (2) the right- and left-handed apical loop helix with predominantly oblique fibers and reciprocal spiral (c) representing the right- and left-handed helix configuration, which (3) twists at basal and apical loop junction. The myocardial band extends between the pulmonary artery (PA) and the aorta (Ao). Note (a) the intact heart and (b) detachment of the right ventricle free wall with circumferential transverse orientation of right basal segment (RS). A genu adjacent to the septum separates the right and left ventricles, with (c) the detached rotated apical loop showing the left basal loop segment (LS) surrounding the inner helix configuration containing oblique right- and left-handed helical or descending and ascending segments. Note (d) unwrapping of the helix to show unfolding of the descending segment (DS) and (e) the complete a, Ejection. Apical view (a) of myocardial architecture of the ventricular myocardial band showing the relationships of the oblique fibers in the right-handed helix or descending (deep) and left-handed helix or ascending (surface) segments that (1) overlap in the anterior lateral LV free wall and septum and (2) do not overlap in the most lateral region. Short-axis view (b) of Movie II in the online-only Data Supplement during ejection showing similar overlap of endocardial and epicardial muscle fibers in anterior lateral ( LV) free wall and septum and showing no overlap in most lateral region, as shown in views of apical myocardial architecture. Vector imaging (c) performed at the apex during ejection in the open-chest pig demonstrating that endocardial vectors in each region of the septum (formed by the descending segment) point radially inward in a clockwise direction, whereas endocardial vectors on the anterior and lateral wall point radially inward in a counterclockwise direction and correspond to the apical view architecture.