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N5 Physical Geography: Coasts Revision

Prezi looking at Physical Geography: Coasts - designed to compliment revision
by

Mr T Simpson

on 28 March 2018

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Transcript of N5 Physical Geography: Coasts Revision

Processes at work
This Prezi is designed as a revision tool - to remind yourself about Coasts - the processes involved and how some of the features are formed. It is not intended as a one-stop shop for revision of the topic - you have more detailed notes in your jotters!
Hydraulic Action
Corrasion (Abrasion)
Solution (Corrosion)
Chemicals (weak acid) and salt in seawater slowly dissolve rock minerals on the coastline.
Longshore Drift
CLIFFS
The waves mostly erode the bottom of the cliff, which gets worn away to form a 'wave-cut notch'

As the wave-cut notch gets bigger the cliff cannot support itself and collapses into the sea.

This process is repeated over time and a gentle sloping 'wave-cut platform is left in front of the cliff. This will be exposed at low-tide.
HEADLANDS & BAYS
CAVES, ARCHES & STACKS
Waves attack a line of weakness in the headland (1). Types of erosion include
HYDRAULIC ACTION
,
CORROSION
and
CORRASION
(1).
Continuous erosion will open up the crack and it will develop into a sea
CAVE
(1).
Further erosion of the cave, often on opposite sides of the headland, will form an
ARCH
(1).
The roof of the arch is attacked by the waves until it eventually collapses (1).
This leaves behind a free standing piece of rock called a
STACK
which is separate from the headland (1).
SPITS, BARS & TOMBOLOS
BAR
A
BAR
is formed if deposition keeps going right across a bay, and joins up with a beach on the other side.
When the coastline changes direction, such as at a river estuary,
LONGSHORE DRIFT

(EXPLAIN PROCESS)
will continue to transport sediment in the same direction as the original coastline.
This sediment is deposited in the open water and builds up new land over time.
A temporary change in wind direction causes the
SPIT
to curve at its end.
The area of water sheltered by the
SPIT
fills up with mud and forms into a 'salt-marsh'.
TOMBOLO
A
TOMBOLO
will form when a spit grows out into open water and reaches an island. The island is then joined to the mainland by the
TOMBOLO
.
Video
The next part of the Prezi contains a good video for revision - it does last just over 18 minutes so make sure you have enough time to watch it!
THE FEATURES
You need to be able to
describe
and
explain
how the features are formed. Remember it is vital that you show you know the processes and can explain these fully.
BAYS
are formed due to
DIFFERENTIAL EROSION
(1) where rocks along the coastline are formed in alternating bands of different rock types (1) e.g. sandstone and clay (1) and which meet the coast at right angles (1).
Clay is a
softer rock
than sandstone so it is
eroded more quickly
(1). The waves erode the softer rock through
HYDRAULIC ACTION
,
CORRASION
and
CORROSION
(1) to form sheltered
BAYS
(1) which may have beaches (1).
The harder sandstone areas are more resistant to erosion and jut out into the sea to form exposed
HEADLANDS
(1).
The 'sandpaper effect' when waves, which have rocks and pebbles in them, erode away the coastline.
The sheer power of the waves as they crash into the coastline, often with explosive force, compressing the air against the cliff and causing it to break up.
On-shore winds make waves approach at an angle (swash), but they go back down (backwash) at right angles to the beach. This results in material being moved along the beach.
Case Study: Lulworth, Dorset
Tourism figures
About 750,000 people visit Lulworth in a year
35% of them come in six weeks during July and August
Only 10 % come during the four winter months November to February
95% of Lulworth’s visitors are day vistors
The vast majority (over 90%) come by car and coach
Located within a 2 hour drive from London, around 1 hour from Birmingham
The Heritage Centre is Dorset’s second most visited tourist attraction and its most visited free attraction
The footpath between Lulworth and Durdle Door is the busiest 1 mile stretch of the whole 600 mile SW Coastal Path
What attracts visitors to the area?

It is surrounded by outstanding scenery and wildlife habitats e.g. the Cove, Durdle Door
It is located on the South West Coastal Path
The tourist infrastructure includes cafes, hotels, B and B’s, ice cream kiosks, heritage centre, various shops, holiday park and youth hostel
West Lulworth is a picturesque village with thatched cottages and rural ambiance
The nearby fossil forest is an important geological SSSI
The ‘classic’ coastal features are of interest to students of geography and geology
Possible solutions?
The Lulworth Estate manages a car park which accommodates over 500 vehicles on hard standing and in overflow areas.
A mini roundabout has been constructed to provide easy access to the car park.
The estate subsidises a bus service from the railway station to encourage visitors not to come by car.

The principal local landowner, the Lulworth Estate, uses car park revenue to :
fund a range of facilities for tourists
fund conservation schemes e.g. footpath maintenance and grassland management
they also employ a number of local people
Conflict:
Tourists VS Locals
Congestion : the road to Lulworth Cove is narrow and it is a ‘dead end’ so this part of the village has to absorb all traffic.
Traffic
Noise and litter : the traditional character of the village is spoiled during the summer tourist months by vehicle noise and indiscriminate litter dropping.
Inconsiderate parking : creates access problems for local people
Litter
Visual intrusion
The holiday park which is managed by the Lulworth Estate is unsightly and out of keeping with the landscape
These are not in keeping with the character of the village.
Local people also complain that other shops raise prices during the tourist season.

Second homes
Many houses are bought as second homes and lie empty for much of the year. House prices become inflated meaning that it is difficult for local people to buy property.
Unsightly tourist shops
This creates visual pollution and is a threat to wildlife
Shallow, stagnant water, trapped behind the
BAR
, is called a 'lagoon'.
Full transcript