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N5 Physical Geography: Coasts Revision
Transcript of N5 Physical Geography: Coasts Revision
This Prezi is designed as a revision tool - to remind yourself about Coasts - the processes involved and how some of the features are formed. It is not intended as a one-stop shop for revision of the topic - you have more detailed notes in your jotters!
Chemicals (weak acid) and salt in seawater slowly dissolve rock minerals on the coastline.
The waves mostly erode the bottom of the cliff, which gets worn away to form a 'wave-cut notch'
As the wave-cut notch gets bigger the cliff cannot support itself and collapses into the sea.
This process is repeated over time and a gentle sloping 'wave-cut platform is left in front of the cliff. This will be exposed at low-tide.
Headlands & Bays
Stacks & Stumps
An exposed headland is subjected to the full force of the sea and is therefore eroded.
Water begins to erode away 'fault lines' in the rock through hydraulic action, corrasion and solution (EXPLAIN PROCESSES)
The fault is widened to form a 'sea-cave'.
The cave is eroded right through the headland creating an 'arch'.
As the sides of the arch are further eroded the roof of the arch cannot be supported and collapses leaving a stand-alone 'Stack'.
This stack is further eroded and eventually collapses to leave behind a 'stump'.
A 'bar' is formed if deposition keeps going right across a bay, and joins up with a beach on the other side.
Shallow, stagnant water, trapped behind the bar, is called a 'lagoon'.
When the coastline changes direction, such as at a river estuary, longshore drift will continue to transport sediment in the same direction as the original coastline.
This sediment is deposited in the open water and builds up new land over time.
A temporary change in wind direction causes the spit to curve at its end.
The area of water sheltered by the spit fills up with mud and forms into a 'salt-marsh'.
A tombolo will form when a spit grows out into open water and reaches an island. The island is then joined to the mainland by the tombolo.
The next part of the Prezi contains a good video for revision - it does last just over 18 minutes so make sure you have enough time to watch it!
You need to be able to describe and explain how the features are formed. Remember it is vital that you show you know the processes and can explain these fully.
Where bands of hard-rock (e.g. Chalk) and soft-rock (e.g. Clay) meet the coast, rate of erosion differ. The soft-rock gets eroded to form sheltered bays, often with beaches. The hard rock sticks out into the Sea and an exposed headland is formed.
The 'sandpaper effect' when waves, which have rocks and pebbles in them, erode away the coastline.
The sheer power of the waves as they crash into the coastline, often with explosive force, compressing the air against the cliff and causing it to break up.
On-shore winds make waves approach at an angle (swash), but they go back down (backwash) at right angles to the beach. This results in material being moved along the beach.
Case Study: Lulworth, Dorset
About 750,000 people visit Lulworth in a year
35% of them come in six weeks during July and August
Only 10 % come during the four winter months November to February
95% of Lulworth’s visitors are day vistors
The vast majority (over 90%) come by car and coach
Located within a 2 hour drive from London, around 1 hour from Birmingham
The Heritage Centre is Dorset’s second most visited tourist attraction and its most visited free attraction
The footpath between Lulworth and Durdle Door is the busiest 1 mile stretch of the whole 600 mile SW Coastal Path
What attracts visitors to the area?
It is surrounded by outstanding scenery and wildlife habitats e.g. the Cove, Durdle Door
It is located on the South West Coastal Path
The tourist infrastructure includes cafes, hotels, B and B’s, ice cream kiosks, heritage centre, various shops, holiday park and youth hostel
West Lulworth is a picturesque village with thatched cottages and rural ambiance
The nearby fossil forest is an important geological SSSI
The ‘classic’ coastal features are of interest to students of geography and geology
The Lulworth Estate manages a car park which accommodates over 500 vehicles on hard standing and in overflow areas.
A mini roundabout has been constructed to provide easy access to the car park.
The estate subsidises a bus service from the railway station to encourage visitors not to come by car.
The principal local landowner, the Lulworth Estate, uses car park revenue to :
fund a range of facilities for tourists
fund conservation schemes e.g. footpath maintenance and grassland management
they also employ a number of local people
Tourists VS Locals
Congestion : the road to Lulworth Cove is narrow and it is a ‘dead end’ so this part of the village has to absorb all traffic.
Noise and litter : the traditional character of the village is spoiled during the summer tourist months by vehicle noise and indiscriminate litter dropping.
Inconsiderate parking : creates access problems for local people
This creates visual pollution and is a threat to wildlife
The holiday park which is managed by the Lulworth Estate is unsightly and out of keeping with the landscape
These are not in keeping with the character of the village.
Local people also complain that other shops raise prices during the tourist season.
Many houses are bought as second homes and lie empty for much of the year. House prices become inflated meaning that it is difficult for local people to buy property.
Unsightly tourist shops