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Music and the Brain

Brain Science and Learning Final Project
by

Daniel Rodriguez

on 3 December 2015

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Transcript of Music and the Brain

The Human Brain and Music
Daniel Rodriguez
Ed Ci 545; Brain Science and Learning
Linda B. Caviness, Ph.D.
The Human Brain
What is it?
Where is it?
Where is it?
What does it do?
What is it?
The brain is the most complex structure in the whole universe.
Wet, fragile, weighs about 3 lbs.
About the size
of a grapefruit.
Shaped like a walnut.
Feels like tofu.
Located inside the cranium
At the top of the spinal column
The brain controls everything the body does, feels, and thinks.
Thought and voluntary movement
memory
speech
movement
emotions
reasoning
perception, etc.
Basic Life Functions
breathing
digestion
blood circulation
heart beat
neural impulses
EXTERNAL
The Human Brain is divided into two main sections:
INTERNAL
External Parts of the Brain
Frontal Lobe:
Deals with planning and thinking
Center of rational control
Higher thinking and problem solving
Regulates emotional system
Deals with self-will and personality
Houses temporal memory (working memory)
Temporal Lobes:
Positioned above the ears
Deal with sound and music
Face and object recognition
Some long-term memory
Deals with self-will and personality
Speech enters here, on left side
Occipital Lobes:
Used exclusively for visual processing
Parietal Lobes:
Spatial orientation
Calculation
Certain types of recognition
Motor Cortex:
Band that goes from ear to ear
Controls body movement
Works with the Cerebellum to coordinate the learning of the motor skills
Somatosensory Cortex:
Processes touch signals received from different parts of the body
Brainstem:
Connects brain to spinal cord
Controls heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion
The Cerebrum:
80% of brain's mass
Divided into two hemispheres
Connected by the Corpus Callosum
Right Hemisphere
Left Hemisphere
Left Brain:
Controls
right
side of the body
Deals with linear thinking such as:
Math, science, writing, language, logic.
Right Brain:
Controls
left
side of body
Deals with holistic thinking such as:
Creativity, imagination, drawing, emotion, expression
Internal Parts of Brain
Thalamus:
Receives all sensory information except smell
Redirects signals to other brain parts
Hypothalamus:
Monitors internal systems to maintain normal body state (homeostasis)
Moderates release of hormones such as sleep, food, and liquid intake
Hippocampus:
Consolidates learning
Center of the working memory
Converts information from working memory via electrical signals to the long-term storage regions
Compares incoming information with stored experiences (important for creation of meaning)
Amygdala:
Plays important role in emotions, especially fear
Regulates the interactions with the environment than can affect survival, i.e weather, attacking, escaping, mating, eating
Cerebellum:
Highly organized structure
Has more neurons than all the other parts of the brain
Coordinates movement
Important coordinator of complex motor tasks
Stores the memory of automated movements
Involved in the mental rehearsal of motor tasks
Contributes to large number of mental activities
Sensory Register
How the Brain Processes Information
Short-term
Memory

Long-Term
Memory

An Overview
Five Senses
Our five senses (sight, smell, sound, taste and touch) input millions of data every day to our brain.
The electrical impulses sent by our senses allow our brains to screen the information in our
sensory register.
Screening Data
Our brain has a system of filtering the sensory impulses it receives.
All incoming impulses are sent to the thalamus (except smell) and briefly monitored, then transferred.
The register holds memories for a very short period of time, called
sensory memory.
Short-term memory includes
immediate memory
and
working memory.
Immediate Memory
Holds data for 30 seconds until we decide what to do with it.
Higher priority inputs outweigh lower ones.
Therefore, survival and emotional inputs diminish learning inputs.
Emotions can enhance as well as block learning.
Students must feel safe and balanced to allow learning inputs to enter the working memory.
Data affecting survival
Data affecting emotions
Data for new learning
Working
Memory
Working Memory
Also a temporary memory
Allows us to edit data for storage
Captures our focus, demands our attention
Working memory can only handle a few things at once.
That number increases with age.
Adults have a higher capacity working memory than children.
The WM can only deal with data for a limited amount of time.
This capacity also increases with age.
Motivation plays an important part here.
Motivated minds can remain focused for endless hours.
Long-term memory refers to the process of storing and retrieving information.
Long-term storage refers to the place in the brain where memories are kept.
Long Term Storage
Getting information to pass into the long term storage phase takes time.
Usually occurs during sleep.
And there is no guarantee that the information will not be forgotten.
So how can we transfer learning to the long-term storage phase?
The best way for the working memory to transfer data to long-term storage is to attach
sense
and
meaning
to the the information.
If the working memory attaches
sense
and
meaning
to data, it is much more likely to be remembered.
Does this make sense?
Does it have meaning to me?
Can i understand this based on past experience?
Does it "fit" into what I know about how the world works?
Is it relevant to me?
Why do I have to know this?
When will I use this?
No
No
Yes
Yes
Is meaning present?
Is sense present?
Very Low
Moderate
to
High
Moderate
to
High
Very High
Probability That Learning
Will Be Retained
Self Concept and Motivation in Students
Self Concept
Self Concept is the way we view ourselves in the world.
It is shaped by our emotions and past experiences.
For Example...
Passing a difficult test
Getting positive recognition
Or...
Failing to accomplish a task
Receiving a reprimand
Over time, positive and negative experiences alter how we see ourselves.
More negative experiences lead to a negative self concept, and vice versa.
Neutral
Motivation
Two types of Motivation
People tend to accept experiences that have yielded previous success, and avoid those that have resulted in failure.
Therefore, students with positive self-concepts are more willing to accept more types of learning and information.
The Purpose of Self Concept
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivators originating from the external world.
Such as...
Grades
Parents
Peers
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation from within oneself to succeed.
An inner desire to succeed is the best motivator of all.
It also produces the best type of learning.
The Purpose of Motivation
The longer data has time to process in the working memory, the more probability it attains for retention in long-term storage.
Motivated students process and focus longer, and therefore retain more and learn more.
How Music Affects the Brain
"The Mechanics of Music"
"The Deeper Impact"
"The Subjective Sounds"
"The Hardwired Responses"
Information from:
"What Happens to Your Brain Under the Influence of Music"
<http://io9.com/5837976/what-happens-to-your-brain-under-the-influence-of-music>
Listening to music involves so many distinct parts of the brain.
It is one of the most complex things you can do.
So many parts of the brain coincide to comprehend even the simplest melodies.
...beginning with:
The
auditory cortex
processes the pitch and volume of the music.
Parts of the
frontal cortex
,
parietal cortex
, and
cerebellum
process the rhythm.
Many parts of the
temporal lobe
go into processing the tone of the music.
Most people define music as a right brained activity.
Right Brain
Not True.
Remember the right brain deals mostly with creativity.
Music uses so many different and decentralized areas of the brain, that it is impossible to create a single neuro-category for it.
Good music can trigger more than just purely mechanical responses.
Involuntary movements (such as tapping your foot) while listening to music come from neurons being activated in the
motor cortex.
Even more interesting than the motor response, listening to music also simulates the
visual cortex.
Visual cortex
By stimulating the visual cortex, listening to music makes us conjure up images to match what we're listening.
The memory part of the brain is one of the most deeply intertwined areas with music.
Since the brain is so completely engaged with music, it is easily remembered.
Songs and even pieces of songs are powerful triggers for memories and events.
For example, happy music can increase your breathing rate, while sad music can lower your pulse and slow it down.
Physiological responses can also be triggered by certain music.
Even babies are able to distinguish between sad songs and happy songs.
For example, "happy" music stimulates the part of the brain that releases
dopamine,
the same chemical released when exercising and eating.
Using the chemicals in our body, music evokes a response by reading the tempo, melody, and even phrasing of the song.
Music carries an amazing ability to affect our emotions.
Why does music carry so much meaning for us?
Music is so complex just by itself.
The pitch, tone, and rhythm have to be so perfectly and complexly organized to create music.
Why does music affect people differently?
Memory is one of the most powerful factors in determining a person's own musical likes.
Music with pleasant memories and positive associations draw us in more than the opposite.
The root of all this starts back in the brain.
And as unique as each of our brains are, so are our multi-faceted and complex relationships with music.
Our brain has the capacity to sort and comprehend every melody it hears.
Music has such a dramatic pull on the brain because of the amount of processing it requires.
And our amazing brain does all this in indistinguishable amounts of time.
What more can we do, but sit back and enjoy the music.
I would like to personally thank Dr. Caviness for such an inspiring and motivating class which helped me to understand in a much wider sense our marvelous brain and how it perceives music. It has enhanced my career and made me a much better qualified musician and teacher.
-Cordially, Daniel Rodriguez
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