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AP Psych Chapter 5

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Janet Neyer

on 11 February 2016

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Transcript of AP Psych Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Sensation
Psychophysics
study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
Absolute Threshold:
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Difference Threshold:
minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
just noticeable difference (JND)
Vision: A single candle flame from 30 miles on a dark, clear night
Hearing: The tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet
Smell: 1 drop of perfume in a 3-room apartment
Touch: The wing of a bee on your cheek, dropped from 1 cm
Taste: 1 tsp. Sugar in 2 gal. water
Gustav Fechner
realized that an increase in sensation might be the result of a relative increase in energy
Ernst Weber
Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount), to be perceived as different.
Weber's Law
On the other hand...
Signal Detection Theory
- predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise)
- assumes that there is no single absolute threshold
- detection depends partly on person’s
experience
expectations
motivation
level of fatigue
Vision
Sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity that happens when we become "used to" a constant stimulus
120 million in eye
peripheral retina
detect black, white and gray
twilight or low light
6 million in eye
near center of retina (fovea)
fine detail and color vision
daylight or well-lit conditions
Rods
Cones
Feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features
shape
angle
movement
D. Hubel and T. Wiesel
Feature detectors at work...
Color Vision
Trichromatic Theory
T. Young (1802) & H. von Helmholtz (1852) both proposed that the eye detects 3 primary colors of light: red, blue, & green
All other colors can be derived by combining these three.
Hering's theory of color vision that suggests colors compete, assumes that the visual system treats pairs of colors as opposing or antagonistic.
Opponent-Process cells are inhibited by a color, and have a burst of activity when it is removed.
Opponent-Process Theory
Color-deficiency (colorblindness) seems to prove the trichromatic theory. People who are colorblind are dichromatic instead of tri - missing one type of cell.
Afterimage effect seems to prove the opponent-process theory. Watch what happens...
http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/depth_spinner/
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=2373573n
Can the blind see with their tongues?
CyberSenses: Helping the blind see again
Hearing
a.k.a. audition
Frequency: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Pitch: a tone’s highness or lowness (depends on frequency)
How do we perceive pitch?
Place Theory
the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated



Frequency Theory
the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Hearing Loss
Conduction Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the ossicles or eardrum
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells (basilar membrane) or to the auditory nerve
How cochlear implants work...
Older people tend to hear low frequencies well but suffer hearing loss for high frequencies; this decline is inevitable and begins before 30.
Try this...
Touch
Four distinct skin senses:
pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
Only pressure has identifiable receptor cells.
Pain theories - Robert Melzack
Gate-Control Theory
theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
“gate” opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers
“gate” closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain
Neuromatrix Theory
theory that the matrix of neurons in the brain is capable of generating pain (and other sensations) in the absence of signals from sensory nerves
phantom limb sensations
Taste
sweet
sour
salty
bitter
umami
http://photo.pds.org:5005/pl/content/na/pc/lg/pc305258.gif
Smell
Sensory interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another
e.g. when the smell of food influences its taste
The 6th and 7th senses?
Vestibular Sense (aka equilibrium)

Kinesthesis

http://www.pbs.org/saf/1105/video/watchonline.htm
Why are hot peppers hot?
Draw and Label eyeball...
Clip on vision starts at 14:00
http://video.pbs.org/video/1335053789/
The Bionic Human?
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june11/bionicbodies_06-28.html
Draw and Label retina...
What's it like to be color blind?
http://mentalfloss.com/article/60746/what-its-be-color-blind
Full transcript