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Paragraph: Emphasis, Unity, Coherence

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by

Mhÿrrë Nëäldÿnë

on 24 September 2014

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Transcript of Paragraph: Emphasis, Unity, Coherence

Basic unit
of composition.
It consists of a
group of related sentences
that
develop one main idea
.
It has
three main parts
Introduction
Body of the paragraph
Conclusion.
In other words, it has a
topic sentence
, a few
supporting sentences
, and a
concluding sentence
.
Paragraph
Coherence
Refers to the extent to which the flow of ideas in a paragraph is easily understood by the reader. For this reason, coherence is closely related to unity. When a writer changes main ideas or topics within a paragraph, confusion often results. To achieve coherence, then, a writer should show how all of the ideas contained in a paragraph are relevant to the main topic.
An effecive paragraph might look like this:
It is commonly recognized that dogs have an extreme antagonism toward cats. This enmity between these two species can be traced back to the time of the early Egyptian dynasties. Archaeologists in recent years have discovered Egyptian texts in which there are detailed accounts of canines brutally mauling felines. Today this type of cruelty between these two domestic pets can be witnessed in regions as close as your own neighborhood. For example, when dogs are walked by their masters (and they happen to catch sight of a stray cat), they will pull with all their strength on their leash until the master is forced to yield; the typical result is that a feline is chased up a tree. The hatred between dogs and cats has lasted for many centuries, so it is unlikely that this conflict will ever end.
Unity
The entire paragraph should focus on one single idea.
The supporting details should explain the main idea.
The concluding sentence should end the paragraph with the same idea.
Thus, a unified paragraph presents a thought, supports it with enough details and completes it with a conclusion.
Emphasis, Unity & Coherence
BS Rad Tech
1y - S1


Maggie was the best pet in the world.

She was a beautiful, black puppy that followed Alana and her sister Caitlin all around the yard.

When they were playing in the purple house, Maggie would sit outside the door waiting for them.

When they were swimming in the pool, she would sit at the gate.

When they were on their bikes Maggie would run behind them.

Alana and Caitlin were happy to have a friend like Maggie.
Unity refers to the extent to which all of the ideas contained within a given paragraph "hang together" in a way that is easy for the reader to understand. When the writer changes to a new idea -- one which is not consistent with the topic sentence of the paragraph -- the writer should begin a new paragraph. Unity is important because it aids the reader in following along with the writer's ideas. The reader can expect that a given paragraph will deal only with one main topic; when a new paragraph begins, this signals that the writer is moving on to a new topic.
The topic sentence indicates that the paragraph will deal with the subject of "employees' attitudes," but the paragraph shifts unexpectedly to the topic of "management's attitudes." To achieve unity in this paragraph, the writer should begin a new paragraph when the switch is made from employees to managers.
"Employees' attitudes at Jonstone Electric Company should be improved. The workers do not feel that they are a working team instead of just individuals. If people felt they were a part of a team, they would not misuse the tools, or deliberately undermine the work of others. Management's attitude toward its employees should also be improved. Managers at Jonstone Electric act as though their employees are incapable of making decisions or doing their own work. Managers treat workers like objects, not human beings."
In this paragraph, the writer begins with the topic of job-skills courses, but veers off onto the topic of algebra and history before returning to the subject of courses on employment. As a result, the paragraph is disjointed and difficult to understand.
"Schools should offer courses to help students with the problems of unemployment. Such a course might begin with a discussion of where to find employment, then cover resume writing and interviewing. Algebra and history don't help students with real-world needs. They are required courses that students aren't interested in, and this is frustrating for students who would rather learn about other subjects. If schools offered job-skills courses, students would be well prepared for the difficult task of finding a job once they finish school."
This paragraph is effective for the following reasons:

The paragraph shows unity. All the sentences effectively relate back to the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph.

The paragraph shows coherence. There is a flow of thoughts and ideas among the sentences in this paragraph. There are good transitions employed in the paragraph. The writer also presents her sub-topics in an orderly fashion that the reader can follow easily.
Paragraph
Topic Sentence
states the subject of the paragraph because it gives an overview of the sentences to follow.
Also known as a
focus sentence
, it encapsulates or organizes an entire paragraph.
topic sentences may appear anywhere in a paragraph, in academic essays they often appear at the beginning.
acts as a kind of summary, and offers the reader an
insightful view
of the writer’s main ideas for the following paragraph.
Emphasis
Emphasis is the principle of the paragraph in which important ideas are made to stand out from the rest of the elements in the paragraph . The main Idea of the writer or author wants to say should show to have more importance.
Emphasis:
by Proportion
Subordinate ideas should be given less substance while ideas with greater substance should be given more substance
Emphasis:
by Pause
Is established by making chapter divisions, paragraph breaks as well as marks of punctuation
Emphasis:
by Position
Elaborates that the beginning and end of the paragraph are crucial places where the emphasis should be placed.
Example
There are many reasons why pollution in ABC Town is the worst in the world.
“pollution in ABC Town is the worst in the world”
To be an effective CEO requires certain characteristics.
“To be an effective CEO”
There are many possible contributing factors to global warming.
"contributing factors to global warming"
Fortune hunters encounter many difficulties when exploring a shipwreck.
“exploring a shipwreck”
Dogs make wonderful pets because they help you to live longer.
"dogs make wonderful pets"
Crime in poverty-stricken areas occurs as a result of a systemic discrimination.
"crime in poverty stricken areas"
My First Day

My first day of college was a disaster.

First, I went to the wrong classroom for math. I was sitting in the class, surrounded by people taking notes and paying attention to how to do equations, which would have been okay if I was supposed to be in an algebra class. In reality, I was supposed to be in geometry, and when I discovered my error, I had already missed the first twenty minutes of a one-hour class. When I got to the correct class, all twenty-five students turned and looked ae as the teacher said, "You're late." That would have been bad enough, but in my next class my history teacher spoke so fast I could not follow most of what he said. My day seemed to be going better during botany class, that is, until we visited lab. I had a sneezing fit because of one of the plants in the lab and had to leave the room. When I finally finished my classes for the day, I discovered I had locked my keys in the car and had to wait for my brother to bring another set.
My first day of school was so bad that I know the rest will have to be better.
Teen pregnancy may be prevented by improved education.
"teen pregnancy may be prevented"
Cooking requires a number of different skills.
"Cooking"
It is important to be ready before buying a house.
"before buying a house"
Graduating from high school is important for many different reasons.
"graduating from high school"
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