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3.06 DBA Replacement

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by

Thea Dakila

on 21 July 2014

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Transcript of 3.06 DBA Replacement

3.06 DBA Replacement

Key Significant Economic, Political,and Social Characteristics of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Growth of Major sub-Saharan African Kingdoms and Empires
Location of Major Civilizations of Mesoamerica and Andean South America
The Artistic Contributions of Early Mesoamerica and the Andes
Ghana: Climate change and diffculties with other foreign nations.

Mali: The way the kingship was set up for the future generation.

Songhai: The crashing of the Mali civilization.
By: Thea Dakila
Ghana:
Economic: Trade/ Gold mining
Political: Seperated into clans, with kings clans being the wealthiest.
Social: Most people used rags as clothes, and lived togeather with all of their family. Many people in Ancient Ghana grew their own crops and had enough to trade for other things. The climate was hot and dry.
Mali:
Economic: Trade/ mining of gold and salt.
Political and social: Important members of the empire were the Dyula (or Juula). The Dyula were a local merchant class who were all Muslims. There were Dyula merchants during the Ghana Empire, but they rose to their height during the Mali Empire. They established their own trading settlements and helped spread Islam as well as trade throughout the region.
Songhai:
Economic: Trade/ salt mines
Political: Sonni Ali-- a powerful politician and great military commander. His legend consists of him being a fearless conqueror who united a great empire, sparking a legacy that is still intact today.
Scial: Kings and Nobility, Freemen, Slaves and then War Captives was the hierarchy of the ancient Songhai.
Factors Leading to the Downfall of Empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
It extended from central Mexico through most of Central America, including Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
Legacies of the Olmec, Zapotec, and Chavin on later Meso and South American civilizations
Roles of people in the Maya, Inca, and Aztec societies
Impact of Significant Meso and South American rulers (Pacal the Great, Moctezuma I, and Huayna Capac)
Geographic factors help explain sub-Sahara Africa's relatively late state-building. Climatic changes between 5000 and 1500 B.C., which produced the Sahara Desert, limited cultural contacts with the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin.
Olmec: Olmec ceremonial buildings were most typically earthen platform mounds. At La Venta, you can see that after 900 B.C. such platform mounds were arranged around large plaza areas and include a new type of architecture: a tall pyramid mound.
Zapotec: They created rounded pyramids. These pyramids were built around 600 BCE, and the Zapotec people created tombs within the pyramid to bury important people.

Chavin: Most Chavin Architecture has been eroded and weathered away, because of the mountainous landscape, but there still stands some in Ancash Peru. These pyramids and temples were used as galleries.
The Maya, Aztec, and Inca all had different expectations for men and women. The Incas had particularly different expectations.

Families lived in groups calledayllus. Girls took care of babies, cooked meals, fetched water, made clothing, and learned how to weave. Boys generally looked after animals and helped in the fields. They were given a loincloth at the age of 15.

The sons of nobles were treated rather differently. They were taught religion, geometry, history, military strategy, public speaking, and physical training from tutors called amautas. At the age of 15, they endured tests of courage, strength, and discipline that lasted a month.
They built statues to represent their different gods and goddesses.

Pacal the Great: The throne was passed on to Pacal through a female; as a result, he believed that he must legitimize his claim to the throne to add stability to his reign.

As a result, the daughter of Ac Kan's brother ruled until her son, Pacal, reached an age old enough to assume the throne.

Pacal the Great became the king of the Mayan city of Palenque in a different way than most Mayan kings.

Pacal pointed out that Ac Kan had succeeded his mother as ruler, thereby establishing a precedent for the rule to pass through a female.

He tried to justify that the way he gained the throne by connecting his mother with the Divine Mother and the mythological events that happened during the creation of the world.

Typically, the son of a male Mayan ruler inherited the throne, but in 612 CE, King Ac Kan died and did not leave behind a male heir.
Montezuma I: Montezuma realized that his government failed to help the Aztecs during the famine.

In order to appease him, Montezuma increased the number of human sacrifices.

The Aztec performed human sacrifices to their god Huitzilopotchli because they believed he desired human blood.

Around 1440 CE, Montezuma I became the fifth emperor of the Aztecs and went on to rule for 28 years.

Soon after he assumed the throne, the Aztecs were hit with a series of disasters, namely a plague of locusts, a flood, and a harsh frost.
Huayna Capac: Huayna Capac also fought to gain territories north of his empire in what is now Ecuador.

Huayna Capac significantly extended the Inca Empire to the south, into what is now Argentina and Chile.

In 1493 CE, Huayna Capac became the eleventh ruler of the Inca Empire.

Huayna, therefore, wanted to gain his own lands and launched campaigns against tribes to the east and north of the empire.

The Inca Empire reached its peak under the rule of Huayna Capac.

During this time the empire covered a vast territory including parts of present day Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

During his reign, Huayna heard about bearded men with pale skin that resembled the Incan1 god Viracocha and took this news as a bad omen.

Huayna took this as another bad omen that predicted the destruction of the empire.
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