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OT power point
Transcript of OT power point
'Let there be light,'
and there was light."
Genesis 1:3 And God said,
“Let there be lights in the vault of the sky
to separate the day from the night,
and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times,
and days and years "Then God said,
'Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness,
so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky,
over the livestock and all the wild animals,
and over all the creatures that move along the ground.'" Genesis 1:26 "Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man he had formed." Genesis 2:8 Pentateuch Historical Books Poetic Prophetic GENESIS Purose:
The purpose of Genesis is to begin the story of the Covenant. God's Presence:
fist sin of man
Introduction of Covenant Major themes:
Covenant and Election
Origins The Pentateuch consists of the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Key Ideas:
Abrahamic covenant as unifying theological theme
Diversity of literary types and distinctive literary features
Issues related to the historicity of the narrative texts These books of the Bible recount numerous narratives from biblical times. It's purpose is to show how God acted throughout history to fulfill His covenant promises and carry out His agenda. Though there are some books of the Bible solely dedicated to poetry, poetics appear through the whle of the Old Testament. These are books recording the exact words of God given through the medium of His prophets; those called by Him. Authorship generally attributed to Moses and divided up into eleven sections with each section beginning with "Toledoth"(this is the account of) Toledoth of Heavens and Earth (Gen.2:4-4:26) Toledoth of Adam (Gen. 5:1-6:8) Adam was the first man created by God. He lived for a time in the Garden of Eden and walked with God. God made eve from Adam to be Adam's helper. Adam and Eve commited the first sin by disobeying God concerning the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Toledoth of Noah( Gen. 6:9-9:29) God saw the world as corrupt and wicked, but there remained one righteous man, Noah. God instructed Noah to build an Ark because He was going to destroy both men and the earth. Noah obeyed and brought with him all sorts of animals onto the Ark. By this life on earth continued. TOLEDOTH OF ISAAC Isaac was the son of Abraham and Sarah.
He was the heir to the Abrahamic covenant.
Isaac had two sons with his wife Rebekah, Jacob and Esau.
The Lord foretold that the older would serve the younger.
Esau was the eldest, yet Jacobn tricked him out of his birthright.
Additionally, Jacob tricked his father into giving him blessing rather than giving it to Esau.
Because of these things, Jacob became the heir to the Abrahamic Covenant. TOLEDOTH OF JACOB The main intent of the story of Joseph is to recount how the family of Abraham ended up in Egypt.
Joseph was the son of Israel, and Israel loved Joseph more than any of his other sons.
Joseph's brothers became jealous and sold him into slavery. Gen. 37:2-50:26 Joseph ended up in Egypt and eventually becomes the Viceroy( second to the Pharaoh)
There is a famine in Canaan, so Joseph;s family comes to Egypt seeking food.
Joseph welcomes them in and they live in Egypt from then untill the time of Moses Gen. 25:19-35:29 Exodus Key Ideas:
The Supremacy of YHWH over pagan deities
The exodus as a redemptive event for ancient Israel
The Mosaic Law as a religious and social charter for Israel
The presence of God symbolized by the tabernacle Major Themes:
The Ten Plagues
The Ten Commandments
The Presence of God Purpose statement: The purpose of Exodus is to explain how the Israelites became slaves in Egypt and their deliveance from Egyptian oppression. The book also reveals the God whose name is YHWH and relates how His dvine presence came to dwell among His people. The English name of for this second book of the Pentateuch comes from Greek Old Testament title Exodus, meaning a "going out" or "departure" Moses is considered the source of Exodus, whether he wass the author or wrote it as a literary product recounting Moses's life and servitude to God. Those who do not accept the authorship of Moses are committed to the documentary hypothesis. In this theory, there are four sources identified for Exodus.
P(Priestly) The book of Exodus spans about eighty years. There are two theories for the dates of Exodus. 1.
1504-1450 B.C. for oppression
1450-1425 for exodus 2.
1320-1304 for oppresion
1304-1237 for exodus This map represents the southern route of the exodus. This route accommodates all biblical and geological information most convincingly. Exodus is divided into three large blocks.
1. Israel in Egypt( Ex. 1:1-13:16)
Tells of the judgement of Egypt and the deliverance of Israel
2. Israel's wilderness trek( Ex. 13:17-18:27)
Tells how God molded the poeple of Israel into His covenant people
3. Israel at Sinai( 19:1-40:38)
Details the Tabernacle and its furnishings A prophet is someone who speaks on behalf of another person. In the context of the Bible, they are the spokesperson of God. Leviticus Key Ideas:
The holiness of God
The purity of the covenant
The principle of substitution
The redeeming of time by means of the liturgical calender Major Themes:
Sabbath Rest and Sabbatical Year Purpose:
The purpose of Leviticus is to provide a manual or handbook on holiness desighned to instruct the Hebrew community in holy worship and holy living so that they might imitate God's holoiness and enjoy the presence and blessing of God. Authorship attributed to Moses and dated in either the Late Bronze Age(1400 B.C.) or early Iron Age(1200 B.C.) Some contest that it draws from the Documentary Hypothesis. They believe it comes from the Priestly(P) source. They would date the book between 550 and 450 B.C. The ultimate purpose of Hebrew sacrifice was to worship God and to preserve God's presence in their midst.
There are five basic types of sacrifice practiced by Hebrews.
1. Cereal or Grain offering
2. Fellowship or Peace offering
3. Whole burnt offering
4. Sin offering
5. Guilt or trespass offering Sacrifice Sabbath The Sabbath was a covenant sigh between YHWH and Israel demoting Israel's special relationship with God. It was designed to foster thanksgiving, forgiveness , respect, and generosity in the community. Numbers Key Ideas:
God's faithfulness to His covenant promises
Divine testing of human motives
God communicating His truth through the medium of culture
God's sovereign rule of the nations Major Themes
The Census Numbers
The Testing by YHWH
The Revelation of God in Human Culture
Balaam Oracles Purpose
The purpose of Numbers is to contrast the faithfulness of God with the faithlessness and rebellion of the Israelites . God keeps His covenant promises, and the Israelites continually grumble and rebel against God's commands. Survey of the Old Testament
Professor Lyons Traditionally, Moses is seen as the author of Nubers
However those who hold to the documentary hypothesis claim that chapters 1-10 come from the Priestly source. Chapters 11-25 are a composite of the Yahwist and Elohist sources with 25-36 assighned again to Priestly. This books covers about thirty-eight years and nine months in the early period of Hebrew history known as wilderness or desert wandering. The dominant purpose of Numbers comes in a twofold message. The first is the example of God's patience and faithfulness in the face of Israel's contiual grumbling and rebelling. The second is God's further revealing of the nature and character of Israel's covenant with God. Numbers gives important historical information of Israel's first years out of Egypt. It records Isreal's journy from Sinai to wandering in the wilderness. It served to help organize the former Hebrew slaves into a unified community of God's children. Deuteronomy Key Ideas:
The importance of of a central worship place
The emphasis on the name of God
The organization oflaws woth reference to the Ten Commandments
The cetrality of loving and obeying the covanent God Major Themes:
History as Theology
Retribution Principle Purpose:
To summarize and renew the covenant in preparation for entering into the new land. It organizzes laws in a way that the spirit behind the Ten Commandments will be understood. It is the Charter document of Isreal Again there are two theories on who to attribute the writing of this book. It is either Moses or the documentary hypothesis. However, Deuteronomy is different because it is acknowledged that it was written around the seventh century B.C. Though much of this book can be attributed to ancient Hebrews, it is generally accepted that it was fully written and edited around the seventh century. Suzerain Treaty Deuteronomy closely resembles the Hittite Suzerain treaty. They both have the same basic outline. 1. Preamble- introduces the speaker
2. Historical Prologue- emphasizes the benevolence and authority of the maker
3. Stipulations- what is expected
4. Public Display- how to display and recite the treaty
5. List of Witnesses
6. Curses and Blessings- what you receive for either obeying or ignoring the treaty Deuteronomy is intended to formalize the covenant that Israel entered into the Lord at Sinai. This is done particularly by the Ten Commandments. Commandment 1: Divine Authority
You shall have no other God's
Commandment 2: Divine Dignity
You shall not make for yourself
Commandment 3: Commitment to Deity
You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your
Commandment 4: Rights and Privileges of Diety
Observe the Sabbath day by keeping it holy
Commandment 5: Human Authority
Honor your father and your mother Commandment 6-8: Human Dignity
You shall not murder
You shall not commit adultery
You shall not steal
Commandment 9: Commitment to mankind
You shall not give false testimony to your
Commandment 10: Human Rights and Privileges
You shall not covet...anything that belongs
to your neighbor. Joshua Key Ideas:
The faithfulness of God in fulfilling covenant promises
The conquest and apportionment of the land
The importance of obedience Major Themes:
Covenant and Land
Corporate Solidarity Purpose:
The purpose is well summed in the verses Joshua 21:43-45
"So the Lord gave Israel all the land he had sworn to give their ancestors, and they took possession of it and settled there. The Lord gave them rest on every side, just as he had sworn to their ancestors. Not one of their enemies withstood them; the Lord gave all their enemies into their hands. Not one of all the Lord’s good promises to Israel failed; every one was fulfilled." The author of Joshua and the dates it was composed are uncertain and highly contested; however, the conquest of Canaan by the Hebrews seems to have occurred in the Middle Bronze age( about 1420 B.C.) Joshua describes how the Tribes of Israel must divide the promise land among them. The book of Joshua presents two new concepts: The Ban and Corporate Solidarity To Ban something means, "uncompromising consecration of property and dedication of the property to God without possibility of recall or redemption."
( Webster's Unabridged Dictionary) Corporate Solidarity means that numerous people are punished for the sin of one. Usually, this comes when a member of family sins and the whole or much of the family is punished along with him. Judges Key Ideas:
The cycles of the Judges period
God's justice and grace
God's sovereign provision of deliverers
Covenant failure by the people, the priests, and the leadership
The role of the Spirit of the Lord Major Themes:
The Nature of Charismatic Leadership
Spirit of the Lord
Israel's Apostacy Purpose:
To show the failure of the Israelites to keep their part of the covenant. God demonstrates His power and mercy by delivering them time after time after His justice has demanded that He bring punishment. The book exposes how corrupt the leadership of Israel was. There is no indication anywhere in Scripture as to the identity of the author of Judges. Jewish tradition identifies Samuel as author, while recent scholars include the book in the Deuteronomic History. The consensus today is that the book was composed in many different narratives all written at separate times. The process of composing the book could have taken several centuries. Dating: Late period, Judges covers most of twelfth and eleventh centuries(Iron Age I) Early period, Judges covers twice as much time from fourteenth through eleventh centuries( Iron Age I and Late Bronze Age II) The ultimate purpose of Judges is to recount what occurred theologically in the years between Joshua and David. The idea of a deliverer of God( a Judge) is present throughout. These deliverers are necessary because of Israel's cycle if Apostasy. Apostasy Cycle of Apostasy
occurred twelve times in the book of Judges Oppression Cry for help Deliverer
(judge) Ruth Key Ideas:
God's faithfulness and loyalty stimulated by people's faithfulness and loyalty to one another
David's faith shown to be the legacy of his ancestors
The light of loyalty dispersed during the apostacy of the judges period
The concept of kinsman-redeemer introduced Major Themes:
To show that when people are faithful, God is faithful. It provides a contrast to the book of Judges showing that faithfulness survived in Israel even among its times of apostasy. No author is named for the book, so it remains autonomous.
The book of Ruth is most likely set at the end of the twelfth century B.C. roughly the time of Jephthah. Ruth introduces the concept of a Kinsman-Redeemer. Under this law, if a man died without having a son, his brother was obligated to bear a son by his widow. That son would then be considered the heir to the dead brother's inheritance. This law was meant to preserve the ownership of land and property in the hands of the original family. The word for this in Hebrew is: goel. The Hebrew term hesed envelopes all the far-reaching implications of YHWH's loylty to His covenant. It is translated as mercy or lovingkindness 1-2 Samuel Key Ideas:
The institution of kingship
The process toward establishing a covenant with David's line
The importance of divine kingship Major Themes:
Ark of the Covenant
Assessment of Saul
Assessment of David Purpose:
To tell the story of the establishment of the kingship covenant with David. God's plan was to have an earthly king who would give a good example of what God's kingship is like. Authorship for the books of Samuel are attributed to Samuel around the tenth century B.C. The Davidic covenant is the centerpiece of the narrator's agenda. The book that lies before the Davidic covenant leads up to it, and from there everything is understood in light of this covenant. In God's eyes, the kings role was to promote justice at home and abroad through warfare. Most importantly a king was annointed by the Lord for His purposes. As such, he should be an example of God's righteousness and uphold His laws and covenants. Davidic Covenant 1. What did the Lord promise? He promised ot make David's name great name great and to give Israel a permanent place in the land.
2. Was the covenant conditional or unconditional? The promises made to David were unconditional; however, the covenant was subject to periodic renewal.
3. What impact did the covenant have on the rest of Israelite history? Though God's promise was fulfilled after Solomon's rule, He chose to practice grace and keep at least on tribe under the control of the Davidic line. Also, the Israel's hope that a future Davidic king would come and restor the full Davidic covenant was the foundation for the messianic theology as we see in the prophets. 1-2 Kings Key Ideas:
Kingship-good and evil
The prophetic voice as the royal conscience
Worship-Yahwism vs. Baalsim
Covenant blessings (repentance and restoration) and curses( judgment and exile) Major Themes:
Assessment of King Solomon
Preclassical and Classical Prophecy
Dynastic Succession and Charismatic Leadership
The Golden Calf Cult Purpose:
To continue the story of kingship begun in Samuel, and their primary purpose is to record the covenant failure of the Hebrew united and divided monarchies. Those who disagree with Jewish tradition hold that Deuteronimistic editors began to compile the books around late eighth or early seventh century B.C. and that they were closely related to the southern kingdom.
In this theory Kings was composed in two stages: preexilic(600 B.C) and exilic(550 B.C.) Modern scholars have identified no author for Kings, but in Jewish tradition the books are attributed to Jeremiah. Israel's division between north and south is attributed to King Solomon's sin of Idolatry. Kingship in Judah:
Davidic line remained on the throne( dynastic succession)
More stable politically
Kings ruled for about twenty years each
Eight rulers were considered good( Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash[Jehoash], Amaziah, Azariah[Uzziah], Jotham, Hezekiah, Josiah) Kingship in Israel:
Numerous different lines ascended to the throne
Mix between dynastic succession and charismatic leadership
Often politically unstable
Kings ruled about ten years a piece
No good rulers The Golden Calf Cult:
Hebrew term for calf may refer to any male or female bovine. Evidence indicates that the Hebrews borrowed this cult from the Egyptians, most likely the Apis-bull cult of Memphis. This sacred bull was a fertility deity who gave life, health, and strength. The introduction of this cult into the Northern kingdom is attributed to Jeroboam. Jeroboam may have intended these to simple represent the footstools of YHWH they were soon taken as idols and worshiped as gods. 1-2 Chronicles Key Ideas:
The retelling of the past to inspire hope in the present
the reigns of David and Solomon idealized
The centrality of temple worship
The validation of the preists and Levaites as community leaders Major Themes:
Worship in the Old Testament
The Chronicler's Vocabulary
To retell the story of the God of history, more specifically the biography of the God of Israel's history. It presents a theology of hope to the post-exilci Hebrew community. Stylistic and linguistic similarities with Ezra-Nehemiah lead some biblical scholars to assign a single chronicler to all four books(1-2 Chron. and Ezra-Nehemiah)
Most Old Testament scholars separte Chronicle from Ezra-Nehemiah and suppose that it was written by an unknown chronicler anywhere from 515 to 160 B.C. Worship of the Lord is a central idea in Chronicles. Corporate worship is especially promoted.
True worship is recognized as the fear of the Lord and love of one's whole heart. Worship was an attitude of the heart, an active experience before God. Typology:
Aspects of Old Testament that correspond with events in the New Testament. Example 1 Example 2 Priesthood of Melchizedek as the prototype to Christ's ultimate priesthood. Tabernacle and temple foreshadowing the supreme sacrifice of Christ. Ezra-Nehemiah Key Ideas:
The physical restoration of the city of Jerusalem
YHWH as a covenant keeping God
Religious and social reform as the aftermath of repentance Major Themes:
YHWH as a Covenant Keeper
Restoration Period Reforms and the Seeds if Pharisaism Purpose:
To show the numerous ways that God was faithfully at work restoring the Israelites to their land after the Babylonian exile. It shows how the law of Moses was reestablished as the foundation of society. Most biblical scholars attribute this book to an unknown potexilic chronicler. The composition occurred in stages being complete around 400 B.C.
Stage 1: Individual memoirs of Ezra and Nehemiah are written(440-420 B.C.)
Stage 2: Chronicler combines separate memoirs weaving them together.
Stage 3: Chronicler adds Sheshbazzer/Zerubbabel memoirs Ezra-Nehemiah is one of two Old Testament books containing substantial text written in Aramaic. Ezra's arrival in Jerusalem:
458 B.C. Nehemiah's arrival in Jerusalem:
445 B.C. The dominant theological idea of Ezra-Nehemiah is covenant renewal in postexilic Israel. Their efforts to rebuild and reform were largely inspired by the truth of YHWH's faithfulness to His covenant with Israel.
The reordering of Hebrew society sought to:
1. Prevent another exile
2. Preserve the ethnic background of the Israelites Esther Key Ideas:
God is at work even when he is behind the scenes
The schemes of the wicked are doomed
God's plam for His people cannot be thwarted Major Themes:
People of God Purpose:
To show that God can accomplish His purposes just as easily through "coincidences" as He can through grand miracles of deliverance. Though God works behind the cutain, He is still in complete control. The author of Esther is unknown, but the setting for the book is the Persian Empire of the early fifth century B.C. The Jewish festival of Purim originates from the events of the book of Esther. it is kept as a celebration of the deliverance reported in the book.
The theology of Purim affirms that God is no less at work in when He chooses to remain in the background. The deliverance recounted in Esther was not intended as an obvious assessment to God's sovereignty; instead, it was intended to encourage faith among His people. While skeptics can discount these events as coincidences, God's faithful understand its truth. Job Key Ideas:
It is not true that only the wicked suffer.
God's infinite justice cannot be reduced to a simple formula like the retibution principle
God's infintie wisdom is the key to acknowledging His justice Major Themes:
Wisdom, Justice, and Sovereignty of God
To test God's policies concerning justice. The conclusion id God's justice cannot be assessed because we never have enough information to do so. Instead His justice must be inferred from His wisdom. The writing of the book of Job may not have occurred until centuries after the events in the book. Very likely, Job was not an Israelite but was an Edomite. The book is dated in the secon millennium B.C. This book was intended to explore God's policies concerning Justice. This investigation comes in two ways: 1.
The satan implies in Job 1:9-11 that God's policy of blessing the righteous is counterproductive to the development of tru righteousness. The satan contends that blessings induce the blessed to be righteous for blessing sake not for God. 2.
Job wonders how God can allow the righteous person to suffer Job is structured in dialogue patterns. Job's friends take turns advising him on what best to do, and Job responds. Eventually, Job has a conversation with YHWH Himself. It can almost be seen as a debate between the players in these events. Retribution Principle:
God blesses the righteous and punishes the wicked. Job affirms the retribution principle; however, it establishes that this idea cannot be used to predict or demand action from God. Yes God delights in blessing the righteous and guarantees that the wicked will be punished, one cannot say that because you suffer you are wicked or because you prosper you are righteous.
"He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous." (Matt. 5:45b) God's attributes of wisdom, justice, and sovereignty are emphasized in Job. Toward the end of the book, Job questions God as to why the righteous suffer, and God responds not with direct answers but with rhetorical questions. "Then the Lord spoke to Job out of the storm. He said: '...Brace yourself like a man; I will question you,and you shall answer me." (Job 38:1,3) “Have you ever given orders to the morning,or shown the dawn its place, that it might take the earth by the edges and shake the wicked out of it?" (Job 38:12-13) “Would you discredit my justice? Would you condemn me to justify yourself?" (Job 40:8) "...Everything under heaven belongs to me.“I will not fail to speak of Leviathan’s limbs, its strength and its graceful form. Who can strip off its outer coat? Who can penetrate its double coat of armor?" ( Job 41:11b-13) “Look at Behemoth, which I made along with you...What strength it has in its loins, what power in the muscles of its belly! Its tail sways like a cedar..."
( Job 40:15-17a) Psalms Key Ideas:
Recognition of the kingship and sovereignty of God
Conduct and destiny of the rigtheous and the wicked
God's comfort and defense in times of crisis
Importance of praise in all of its variations
Role of nature and creation Major Themes:
Nature and Creation Purpose:
To use hymns of Israel as song like presentation of God's kingship through His annointed representatives, the kings of David's line. It also shows how God delights in blessing the righteous and will bring punishment to the wicked. The book of Psalms had many authors and was not compiled as a united work until after the exile. It had many contributing authors: David, Solomon, Asaph, Heman, Moses, Ethan, and the Sons of Korah. Additionally, it is divided into five separate books:
Book 1: 1-41( Laments)
Book 2:42-72( David's Reign)
Book 3: 73-89(Assyrian Crisis)
Book 4: 90-106(Psalms of Moses, Plea for Restoration)
Book 5: 107-150(Thanksgiving for Return to Israel, Conclusion) All the life predictions given in Psalms are to be taken as general principles. There are exceptions to these; God does allow the righteous to suffer at times.
One cannot rely on the retribution principle presented here to be absolute. All the Psalms fall under three basic categories:
1. Lament- compliant, petition, confession of trust, and vow pf praise
2.Praise- extols God for who He is, focuses on the attributes of God
3.Wisdom- representations of the retribution principle and general life guidelines Proverbs Key Ideas:
The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom
The way of wisdom leads to life
A proverb illustrates a general principle, not a promise
Wisdom leads to an understanding of the retribution principle Major Themes:
The Fear of the Lord
The Retribution Priciple
Human Sexuality Purpose:
To collect the wisdom of ancient Isael and offer both instruction and example in godly living. This wisdom functions to shape character and promote virtue. Proverbs had many contributors: Solomon, Agur and King Lemain( possibly members of northern Arabian tribe of Messa), and many proverbs with anonymous authors.
The wisdom literature of proverbs dates anywhere between tenth century to sixth century B.C. The fear of the Lord is core to correctly interpreting the wisdom of Proverbs. Proverbs equates the fear of the Lord with the knowledge of the Lord. The far of the Lord works as a catalyst in conforming character to God's holy standards. Proverbs again presents the retibution principle, and like all other cases one must be careful when applying this concept. It is not absolute, so the promises of the proverbs are also not absolute, but general guidelines for cause and effect in God's plan. Proverbs has much to say about the proper use of the "tongue" and its abuses. It explians that words have great power, they can be many times unnecessary. The words of the wise are filled with honesty, brevity, serenity, and aptness. Ecclesiastes Key Ideas:
Life should not be expected to be self- fulfilling
Frustrations in life are unavoidable
The seasons of llife must be accepted
Enjoyment of life comes only through a God centered worldview Major Themes:
The Retribution Principle
Experience vs. Piety
Epicurean ism vs. Piety Purpose:
To demonstrate that there is nothing in life that is able to bring self-fulfillment or give meaning to life. Troubles in life are unavoidable and we should not expect answers for why things happen. Ecclesiastes's author is refereed to as "Qoheleth." It is not certain who this is but one possibility is Solomon. The word Qoheleth means convener or assembler. Ecclesiastes accepts the retribution principle, but denys it ability to predict life or forsee an outcome of a certain cituation. Ecclesiastes applies this idea beyond this life sowing how God will blass the righteous and punish the wicked in eternity. This also means that we may see discrepancies here on earth, but we know that ultimetely God's plan prevail. Ecclesiastes uses evidential apologitic to support its claims. It builds its case without any presuppositions about God's revelation. The approach is philisophocal and based on experience and wisdom. Song of Songs Key Ideas:
The goodness of humanity created male and female in God's image
The dignity of human affections
The sanctity of human sexual expression in the context of marriage
The virtue of chastity before marriage and the virtue of faithfulness once married Major Themes:
Positive dimensions of human love Purpose:
To celebrate the male female relationship established by God at creation and the goodness of human sexual love expresses within the confines of God ordained marriage. Some attribute this book to Solomon, but it is best regarded as an anonymous composition. It is very likely that the book was written about his actions or dedicated to him, but there is no known author. Also, it is agreed that Song of Songs was written during the reign of Solomon(970-930B.C.) The main intent of Song of Songs is to example the correct from of human sexual love. There are numerous ways to fail here, shown throughout Proverbs, but it is here that we learn the correct use for God created intimate affections. Isaiah Isaiah's prophecy occurred 740-700 B.C. The book predicts events and people that would not occur up to two-hundred years later. Many scholars believe that the book of Isaiah was compiled by two authors, Isaiah himself for the first section(1-39) and an unknown author for the second half(40-66) All of Isaiah promotes the trustworthiness of YHWH; however, there is a difference between the first and second sections. Chapters 1-39 consit mostly of oracles of indictment and judgment. Chapters 40-66 highlight God's forgiveness, deliverance, and restoration of Israel. Isaiah also emphasizes the holiness of God, giving God the name "Holy One of Israel." Isaiah present much eschatology- conclusions of God's agenda. It points to the future of Israel and shows God's infinite sovereignty to control even the future. Jeremiah In 605 B.C. after Jeremiah had been prophesying for twenty years, God instructed him to record his prophesies in writing, Jeremiah's call came in 627 B.C. At this time Josiah was purginh Judah of pagan worship, the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal died, and the Babylonian State had become independent. Four types of oracles present in Jeremiah:
Indictment- Israel must forsake its sins
Judgment- Predicts national crisis that will occur of Israel refuses to change
Instruction- A call to return to the Lord and to change their ways
Aftermath- The Lord will bring the people back from exile Jeremiah sets up a new covanent from God. This covenant is written in the heart rather than on stone, but it does not create any new commands. It repeats the mandates of the other covenants. Jeremiah prophesied judment from the Lord, but there were many false prophets from his time that claimed to be the Lord's spokespersons amd predicted deliverance, peace, and prosperity. Lamentations Jewish tradition holds Jeremiah as the writer of Lamentations, but others say it was an anonymous eye witness of the fall of Jerusalem.
The book is response to the fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. Lamentations preserves the Hebrew responce to the Fall of Zion and the destruction of the temple. It tells of the divine abandonment of Israel, and shows her punishment for her apostasy and injustice. The purging of Judah's sin demonstrates the Lord's justice. Lamentations shows God's divine justice and how Judah did indeed deserve punishment. YHWH was in the right to judge the insubordination of those who rebelled against Him. God did abandon Judah for a time. This was due to Judah's covenant trepasses. God removed His glory from the temple in Jerusalem because of the idolatry and sin of Israel and Judah. Ezekiel Ezekiel was one of ten thousand Hebrews who were taken captive by King Nebuchadnezzar in 597 B.C The autobiographical style and frequent use if possessive pronouns( I, me, my) support that Ezekiel penned this book himself. It is likely that he composed the account of his prophesies between 571 and 562 B.C. Ezekiel's purpose was first to warn of impending judgment of Judah, then to to warn the surrounding nations that they might also be judged, and finally he instills hope among the captive Hebrews with the promise of a new covenant of peace. Eaekiel stressed personal responsibilty unlike other Old Testament books. He did not deny corporate solidarity, but showed the Hebrews how they were indivudually to blame for their current crisis Daniel The events of Daniel are set in the sixth century B.C. yet many scholars claim that the book was written between 168-164 B.C. Still there is ample evidence that it was indeed compiled in the sixth century. Daniel was among the first taken to Babylon in 605 B.C. The core purpose of Daniel was to portray the sovereignty of God in the spirit and the state. He encouraged the captive Hebrews to live by faith while they were in exile. They needed to trust that God would control the flow of time to restore them. Daniel emphasizes the contrast between the kingdom of God and the kingdoms of man. He especially demonstrates the everlasting nature of God's kingdom Daniel stresses how the pride of kings and nations lead to their downfall. The parallel for Israel was that rebellion against the Lord lead to their downfall. Hosea Hosea lived in the Northern Kingdom in the golden age of Israel (eighth century B.C.) It is held that he started prophesying shortly before the death of King Jeroboam II( 753 B.C.) He was the only writing prophet, except possible Jonah, that lived in the Northern Kingdom. He foretold of the impeding judgment of Israel brought by the Assyrians. God desired to example His unfailing love and faithfulness to Israel through the prophet Hosea. This was done through God's command to Hosea to marry a harlot named Gomer. God's realtionship to israel paralleled Hosea's realtionship to his unfaithful wife. Israel constrantly forsook God and searched out other deities, yet YHWH was always their God. Gomer repeatedly paricipated in adultery and Hoseah even had to buy here out of prostitution. Israel frequently took up the worship of pagan gods, and the diety they worshipped in Hosea's age is Baal, the storm God of the Canaanites. They intermixed their worship of the Lord with this and many other deities making a sort of religious syncretism. Joel There are two theories concerning the date of Joel. Either the ninth century B.C. or post-exilic Israel. Little is known of Joel as he is not mentioned anywhere else in the Old Testament. Joel correlates a locust plague with the coming of the day of the Lord. He calls the people to repentance though there is no indictment, so their offense is unknown. When poeple responded positively, the Lord's favor was proclaimed, as well as, prosperity. A main theme throughout Joel is a locust plague that Israel is experiencing. He uses this event to bring the day of the Lord into the minds of his audience. Amos Amos stands first chronologically among the writing prophets. His name means "burden bearer." Amos prophesied around the middle of the eighth century B.C. Shortly after prophesying, Amos committed his utterances to writing. Amos presents a four part message:
1. Denounces Israel's sins and forcasts national disaster
2. Condemns specific acts of social injustice
3. Five visions of God's wrath and judgment
4. Promise of restoration and blessing after time of judgment Amos concentrates his indictment of Israel on her acts of social injustice. He provides an Olt Testament illustration of social service and social action. He emphasizes the necessity of working faith. "To praise you is the desire of man... You stir man to take pleasure in praising you, because you have made us for yourself , and our heart is restless until it rests in you." Augustine This quote from St. Augustine well examples the ultimate purpose of man kind. There is nothing under the sun that can satisfy our deepest desire. Only praise of the Lord brings rest to our souls. Obadiah The book of Obadiah si the shortest in Olt Testament, only twenty-one verses. His name means servant of YHWH. Dating his oracles around 587 B.C., the fall of Jerusalem, is the best theory. Obadiah proclaimed a three-part message"
1. Condemned the pride and cruelty of Edom
2. Assured to the godly remnants of Israel the triumph of YHWH
3. Exampled YHWH's infinite sovereignty A core theme of Obadiah's message was the pride and cruelty of the Edomites in assisting Babylon destroy Jerusalem. Edom was the descendents of Esau, and had numerous times of conflict with Israel. Jonah The setting for Jonah is the first half of the eighth century B.C. when Assyria ruled the Middle East. God called Jonah to speak to Nineveh and bring them to repentance. Jonah can be seen as a missionary book, written to show other nations that God will judge them and desires their repentence. Jonah was placed in situations that parallel Nineveh's. He was put through trials of his own making, but when he cried out to the Lord, God saved him as He would do for Nineveh. God demonstrated through the story of Jonah that it is His sovereign right to judge and give compassion as He is compelled to do. Jonah questions how God could show mercy to the despicable inhabitants of Nineveh, but through the book we know that God is free to act as He pleases and His acts always accomplish what is good and just. Micah Micah was from the small town of Moresheth between Jerusalem and the Mediterranean Sea. He is a contemporary of Isaiah. Micah prophesied at the last half of the eighth century B.C. Core to Micah's message was the injustice of the upper class of Israel. He condemed the injustice in Israel ans spoke about the coming wrath of the Assyrians. Micah presents the idea of a Messiah. This concept was different to him than it is to us in our modern age. His claim to a Messaih implied a future ruler who would arise out of Bethlehem who would bring deliverance to Israel from their current persecutors. Micah 6:8, "He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God." Through this passage Micah explians what the Lord's requires to appease His anger. He did not desire rtiuals but proper conduct. Nahum Much literary parallel can be observed between Nahum and Isaiah. The best dating for Nahum is from 655-650 B.C. The purpose of Nahum was to pronounce the doom of Nineveh. It was not meant simply to judge Nineveh, but to encourage Judah. The days of the Assyrians were coming to an end at the hands of the Lord. God was going to punish the people of Nineveh for their sins. Assyrian stands as the ultimate arch villain of the Old Testament. They are even seen as worse than the Philistines. No one of that day compared to the brutality of the Assyrians. They were vile brutal people of war that supressed the nations around them. Habakkuk The prophesies of Habakkuk are dated between 640 to 626 B.C. with 630 B.C. being the best estimate. Habukkak prophesied at a time when Assyria was declining and Babylon was emerging as an independent state. The purpose of this book is to examine God's justice as it concerns nations. How does God deal with entire nations and their actions? The biggest question presented: "How can Gid use the wicked Babylonians to punish His chosen people?" This is answered in two ways. First, the rightteous people of God still have personal responsibitly for their actions and God must punish their wickedness. Second, the Lord assures that simplky because he uses the babylonians to punish Judah does not means He gives them approval. They will be judged for their actions as well. Habakkuk explains God's policy according to nations. God judges nations as a whole. He places the actions of the people on a scale measureing the weight of good and evil. Good conduct does carry more weight than evil, and God does delight in withholding judgment when repentence is given, yet when the evil outweighs the good punishment is necessary. This process is only applicable to whole nations, not to individuals. Zephaniah Zephaniah was a contemporary of Jeremiah. These two prophets signaled the beginning of the Babylonian times . Zephaniah's prophesies are dated during the reign of Josiah( 640-609 B.C.) The best date for the prophesies is 627/626 B.C. These prophesies were intended to inpsire change in Judah by announcing God's judgment on its wickedness. Essential to his message was the day of the Lord, which was quickly approaching. The day of the Lord is a core theme in Zephaniah. In this context it does not mean the ultimate coming of the Lord, but to indicate when the current state of affairs would be replaced by the Lord's intended order. There could be many days of the Lord befoer the ultimate day of the Lord will create a new world. Haggai Haggai is a contemporary of Zechariah; they both prophesied in the postexilic period. Haggai proclaimed four oracles in the year 520 B.C. The book recording his prophesies was likely finished by 516/15 B.C. Haggai had one goal to accomplish by prophesying, to initiate reconstruction of the temple of God. His message was meant to awaken the people to their obliations, responsibilities, promises, and privileges of their covenant with the Lord. First, he rebukes the community's preoccupation with personal goals. Second, he calls the people to repentance and challenges them to honor the Lord by rebuilding His temple. Third, he revealed God's promise to overthrow other nations and restore Israel. Fourth, he establishes God's promise to make Zerubbabel a "signet ring" in Zion to give them a stable government. The rebuilding of the temple signified covenant restoration to the Israelites returning from exile. It was symbolic to the revival of God's blesing once again flowing into the Hebrew people. Zechariah Zechariah is contemporary with Haggai in the postexilic period. Zechariah prophesied between 520 and 518 B.C. and his book was completed somewhere from 500 to 470 B.C. Zechariah rebuked postexilic Hebrews for repeating the evil ways of their ancestors. He offered that the only solution to this was repentance and return to the genuine worship of God. He focused on social justice in the present time of Israel. He exhorted them to righteousness and faith in God. A large part of his purpose was to comfort and strengthen the people of Judah and Jerusalem. He remimded the people that God still cared for His chosen people and that He ruled the nations. Zechariah's message confirmed God's intention to continue His covenant with Israel. Zechariah spekas more about the messianic shepherd-king than any other Olt Testament book. He fortells of the restoration of Israel by a shepherd-king who would be rejected and struck down. Malachi Not much is know about Malachi himself, but his prophesy occurred sometime between 450-400 B.C. He spoke the word of God in a time of apathy and disillusionment. Malachi stresses Israel's covanent realtionship with the Lord. He makes six disputations:
1. YHWH loves Jacob
2. He is Israel's father and desires honest worship
3. He is father of all Israelites and expects true faithfulness
4. God wants honesty, not words, because He is just
5. God is faithful to His word and desires genuine worship
6. Again, God desires honesty Malachi holds the sanctity of marriage high. He protests against divorce and encourages faithful companionship. Marriage is a sacred covenant blessed by God. He uses the iamge of Elijah top describe a man who would come and proclaim God's message. We can now see that John is this Elijah like minister of the Lord. References:
1. Hill, Andrew E. and John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009 Print
2. Saint Augustine. Confessions. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2008 Print
3. Freedman, David. Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's Publishing Co., 2000 Print
4. Google.com. Google Images, 2012. Web. 12-28 Nov. 2012
* All bible verses taken from NIV translation