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PGSD World Geography

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Andrew Lamier

on 14 October 2016

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Transcript of PGSD World Geography

Canada is a vast land that covers most of the Northern half of North America. Canada shares many physical characteristics with the United States.

Canada has ten provinces, or political divisions, and three territories can be divided into five regions based on physical features, culture, and economy.

Canada’s ten provinces:
1. Ontario
2. Quebec
3. Nova Scotia
4. Manitoba
5. Saskatchewan

Canada’s three territories:
1. Northwest Territories
2. Yukon
3. Nunavut
• Canada’s Five Regions:
1. (ATLANTIC PROVINCES): Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island.
2. (CORE PROVINCES): Ontario and Quebec
3. (PRAIRIE PROVINCES): Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan
4. (PACIFIC PROVINCES): British Columbia
5. (TERRITORIES): Yukon Territory, Northwest Territory, Nunavut

World Geography
World Geography Colmer Middle School
What is Geography?
The study of WHERE people, places, and things are located and HOW they relate to each other.
Geography’s Five Themes
Geographers studying a place usually begin by finding its location. A place’s location can be described in either absolute or relative terms.
• Absolute Location: exact position on a globe. (Uses imaginary lines marking positions on the surface of the earth).
Circles halfway between North Poles and South Poles. Divides the world into two hemispheres (halves).
Hemisphere: All land and water located between the Equator and North Pole is located in the Northern Hemisphere. And everything between the Equator and South Pole is the Southern Hemisphere.
Continent: Any of the seven large landmasses of the earth’s surface: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

2. LATITUDE (parallels)
Imaginary lines that run parallel to the Equator. Measures distance between north or south of the equator. Equator is 0 latitude, while the poles are 90 latitude (N) or (S).
The earth is tilted about 23 ½ degrees. Marks the boundaries of the places on earth that receive the most direct sunlight and greatest heat energy from the sun.
4. LONGITUDE (meridians)
Imaginary lines with run north and south between to two poles. Longitude lines are not parallel to each other. The distance between meridians is greatest at the equator and decreases until they come together at the poles.
0 degrees longitude runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. Separates East and West.
Consist of a place’s physical and human characteristics.
Physical Characteristics: A places terrain and environment such as landforms, ecosystem, and climate.
Human Characteristics: How people live, work, languages, customs, beliefs, economy, and government.
A group of places with at least one common characteristic such as perception, formal regions, functional regions, and perceptual regions.
Formal Regions: Areas in which certain characteristics are found throughout the area.
Functional Region: Consist of a central place and the surrounding places affected by it such as the flow of movement of something such as a river.
Perceptional Region: People’s feelings and attitudes about areas.
Places do not exist in isolation and have different characteristics based on how people, goods, and ideas move.
Involves on how people use their environment, how they changed it, consequences of change, response to change, etc.)
People as Goods
The Earth
Physical Characteristics: Earth’s Layers (core, mantle, crust), Land, Air, and Water (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, continents, relief)
Physical Processes: Volcanoes, Earthquakes, etc.
Plate Tectonics: The theory that the earth’s outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity.

Continental Drift Theory: The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride.

Changes on the Earth's Surface
Weathering: The breakdown of rock at or near the earth’s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. (Mechanical weathering and chemical weathering)
Erosion: Movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand. Three most common types of erosion causes are water, wind, and glaciers.
Weather and Climate of Earth: (“Climate is what you expect; weather is what you get”)
Weather: The condition of the bottom layer of the earth’s atmosphere in one place over a short period of time. (Temperature, precipitation, and wind).
Climate: Term used for weather patterns that an area typically experiences over a long period of time. Climate of an area depends on a number of factors, including elevation, latitude, and location in relation to nearby landforms and bodies of water.

• Rotation and Revolution: How the earth spins and how the earth orbits around the sun.
Solstices: Either of the two times a year when the sun appears directly overhead at the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
Equinoxes: Either of the two times each year (spring and fall) when day and night are of nearly equal length everywhere on earth.

The Sun and the Earth
Ecosystems: Formed by the interaction of plant life, animal life, and the physical environment in which they live.
Regions of Earth:
Forest Regions: Tropical Rain Forest, Mid-Latitude Forest, Coniferous Forest, and Chaparral.
Grasslands: Tropical Grasslands and Temperate Grasslands.
Savannas: Tropical grassland with scattered trees, located in the warm lands near the Equator.
Desert Regions: Barren expanses of sand.
Tundra Region: A region where temperatures are always cool or cold and only specialized plants can grow.


Human Geography: The study of populations such as birth, marriage, migration, and death. Human Geography also studies Culture.
Culture: The beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way of life.
Population Density: The average number of people in a square mile or a square kilometer.
Population Growth: Effects of growth, growth rates, and patterns of settlement.
Immigrant: People who move into the country.
Rural: Characteristics of, the countryside.
Urban: Characteristics of, the inner city.
Urbanization: The growth of city population.

Nature of Culture: Reflected on both cultural objects and cultural ideas such as cultural hearths, language, religion, cultural landscapes, social organization, women and minorities.
Cultural Changes: Changes in culture by both internal and external influences.
Cultural Convergence: The contact and interaction of one culture with another.
Cultural Diffusion: The process by which people adopt the practices of their neighbors.
Cultural Divergence: The restriction of a culture from outside influences.

Territory: Includes land, water, and natural resources within its boundaries.
Population: The size of the population does not determine the existence of a country.
Sovereignty: A nation’s freedom from outside control. A sovereign country is one that can rule itself by establishing its own policies and determining its own course of action.
Types of Government
Government Structure: Unitary system, federation, confederation.
Government Authority: Authoritarian, dictatorship, totalitarianism, monarchy, democracy.
Monarchy: A system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch whose position is usually inherited. (Kings, queens, shah, and sultans).
Democracy: A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy.

An economic system must answer three basic questions: What (and how many) goods, and services? How will these products be produced? How will the products and the wealth gained from their sale be distributed?
Traditional Economy: Known as subsistence economies because little surplus is produced, and there is relatively little need for markets where people can buy or sell excess goods.
Market Economy: Free enterprise economy that gives great freedom to individuals and groups. (Capitalism)
Command Economy: An economic system that is controlled by a single central government.
Mixed Economy: A system combining different degrees of government regulation.

World Resources
Natural Resources: Materials in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs.
Renewable Resources: Resource that is constantly being regenerated or replaced by the environment.
Nonrenewable Resources: Resources that cannot be replaced once they have been used.
Fossil Fuels: Any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel.

• Fossil Fuels
• Nuclear Energy: Energy through electricity that is created by nuclear power. (Splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor to release their stored energy).
• Water Power: Energy of falling water to move machinery or generate electricity. (Ex: Dams are used to generate water power)
• Geothermal Energy: Energy that comes from the earth’s internal heat. (Magma heating underground water, producing steam that can be used to make electricity)
• Solar Energy: Energy produced by the sun. (Ex: Solar panels)

Primary Activities
Primary Economic Activities: Economic activities that rely directly upon natural resources. (Fishing, mining, farming, hunting, gathering, herding)
Subsistence Farming: Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village.
Commercial Farming: The raising of crops and livestock for sale in markets.
Tertiary Activities: An economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry.
Quaternary Activities: An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research.
Global Trade Patterns
Imports: Goods that are brought into the country.
Exports: Goods that are sent out of the country.


Unit 2: The United States and Canada
Profile of the United States
An Abundance of Natural Resources:
• Farming
• Forest
• Wealth Underground
Moving Resources, Goods, and People
Water: (Ex. Ocean, Rivers and Canals)
Tributary: A river or stream that flows into a main river.
Land: (Ex. Railroad, Highways)
Communication Technology
Telecommunication: Communication by electronic means.

A Resource-Rich Nation
Respecting Individual Freedoms
Government that was established by the people in 1789 that reflected and shared important values of the United States such as the belief in individual equality, opportunity, and freedom.
Supported by economic system based on capitalism.
Gross National Product
: The total value of goods and services produced within a country for a year, including the domestic output of foreign firms and excluding the output of domestic firms in foreign countries.
: Wealth in the form of money or property owned or used in business.
Free Enterprise
: An economic system that allows individuals to own, operate, and profit from their own business in an open, competitive market.

A Nation of Cities
Metropolitan Areas and Location
Metropolitan Area:
A major city and its surrounding suburbs.
Transportation Affects Patterns of Settlement:
(Canals, Railroads, Automobiles)
Impact of Migration on the Nation
Cities and Towns
Interconnecting cities and towns for distribution of goods and services.
A residential area outside a central city.
Function and Size: Geographers often talk about the nation’s urban places in terms of a hierarchy, or rank, according to their function.
Different terms to describe urban places in each size category. Large cities are called metropolises, and their hinterlands, or areas that they influence, are quite large.
The area served by a metropolis.
Urban Hierarchy:
1. Farm
2. Village
3. Large Town
4. City
5. Metropolis

Population: 2.3 Million, first areas of European Settlement, population is declining because fishing restriction limit jobs.

Language: Most speak English but some speak French.

Climate: Mild, humid continental climate, wet winters, ice hockey was born here.

Buildings: 275 lighthouses in operation on the coastline.

Economic Activity: Fishing (declining), farming (limited), and forestry.

1. Maine 2. Vermont
3. New Hampshire 4. Connecticut
5. New York 6. Pennsylvania
7. New Jersey 8. Rhode Island
9. Massachusetts

Physical Characteristics:
Northeastern part of United States. Unique combination of precipitation, type of soil, and varieties of trees that thrive in the region. Stretches to the Northern part of the Appalachian Mountains. Rocking and jagged coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean, Niagara Falls, rolling farmlands, metropolises, historical.
• New York is considered by many to be the cultural center of the nation.
Natural Resources:
Few natural resources due to the regions thin, rocky soils, and steep hills are a challenge to area’s farmers. Pennsylvania is a coal rich area. The Northeast has one major resource that has turned it into a center of trade, commerce, and industry-its waters.
A Leader in Industry:
The Northeast’s many rivers, including the Connecticut and the Hudson River, have been vital to its history. The thin rocky soil that discouraged farming became essential to industrialist establishment of the area. Because of the ability to attract industrialist and because of its water accesses, the region served as a major area for trade and increased railroad routes and highways. By the early 1900s, the northeast became the most productive manufacturing region in the world.
The Megalopolis:
Cities along the Atlantic Coast serve as huge harbors for international trade and as a center for shipbuilding. About 40 million people now live in this region. New York has grown to more than 8 million people and is considered as the business capital of the world.
Very large city.

1. Maryland 2. Delaware
3. West Virginia 4. Virginia
5. Kentucky 6. Tennessee
7. North Carolina 8. South Carolina
9. Georgia 10. Florida
11. Alabama 12. Mississippi
13. Arkansas 14. Louisiana
15. Oklahoma 16. Texas
Physical Characteristics:
Region of great diversity, extending from Washington D.C in the east to El Paso, Texas in the west. Humid, subtropical climate and lush, mixed forest. Appalachian Mountains, and South Atlantic Ocean coastline and Gulf of Mexico coastline. Beaches along Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coastline. Has a major River of the Mississippi River. Many swamps, rivers and lakes. Temperate climate supports the temperate grasslands known as prairies.
Tropical trees that grow in swampy regions unique to the South.
Marshy inlets of lakes and rivers.
A large area of swampland covered in places with tall grass.
The South as a wide variety of plant and wildlife due to the rich soil of the wide coastal plains.
Parts of the South have large areas where people live in poverty.
Resources to Industry:
Some of the United States largest oil reserves are located in the Southern Region. Available raw materials, sources of energy, and access to ocean ports have been key factors in the economic development of the region. The petrochemical industry is a leading source of industrial income.

Changing Region:
The Southern Region has been growing and changing rapidly. The South has changed from mostly agriculture to a region that supports large industry as well.
: The Southern and Southwestern states of the United States, from the Carolinas to Southern California, characterized by a warm climate and, recently, rapid population growth.

Varied Population:
Diverse population. Over half the nation’s African American population lives in the South. Another large segment of the southern population is Hispanics and other Latin American countries. San Antonio, Texas is one of the nation’s largest cities and has a Hispanic majority of population. Also, the Southern Region has a great deal of French influence, especially along the Gulf Coast.

Major Cities
: Miami, Atlanta, New Orleans, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, San Antonio, Washington D.C., Nashville, Memphis, Little Rock, Oklahoma City, Baltimore.

1. Ohio 2. Indiana
3. Illinois 4. Missouri
5. Kansas 6. Nebraska
7. Iowa 8. South Dakota
9. North Dakota 10. Minnesota
11. Wisconsin 12. Michigan

Physical Characteristics:
Abundant fields and pastures. Most of the Midwest is relatively flat, and its soil is fertile. The climate and soil of the Midwest favors agriculture. Short and very cold winters and long summers. Shores of the Great Lakes. Shares the Mississippi River with the Southern Region.

Nation’s Breadbasket:
Midwest farms are among the most productive in the world. Soybean, corn, and high wheat output. Midwestern productivity is one factor responsible for the average American’s being well fed and allows the United States to export sizable amounts of its produce to other countries. Without agricultural output of the farms in the Midwest, the United States would be far less productive and sustainable.

The Northeast
The South
The Midwest
The West
1. Colorado 2. New Mexico
3. Arizona 4. Montana
5. Idaho 6. Utah
7. Arizona 8. Nevada
9. Oregon 10. Washington
11. Wyoming 12. California
13. Alaska 14. Hawaii
Physical Characteristics:
Breathtaking natural landscape, towering snow capped peaks of the Rocky Mountains, Large rivers, Large Canyons, Grand Canyon, Great Salt Lake, Large deserts, Broad plains, massive glaciers, smoking volcanoes, Pacific Ocean, Stretches to Canada border and Mexico border.

Available Water
: The abundance OR scarcity of water is the major factor shaping the West vegetation, economic activity, and population.
Large pipes that carry water over long distances.

Extreme Variations is Climate:
Examples are Hawaii and Alaska. Hawaii is a tropical remote island with rain forest and volcanoes. Alaska is opposite being treeless plains and large icy mountains. Alaska is the largest state in the nation.

Dry treeless plain that sprouts grasses and mosses only in summer when the top layer of soil thaws.

Natural Resources and the Economy:
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada lies an immense storehouse of minerals such as gold, silver, uranium, and other minerals. Also contains valuable deposits of natural gas and oil. Two major economic activities are forestry and fishing. Nearly have the nation’s construction lumber comes from the Pacific Northwest.

6. Alberta
7. British Columbia
8. Newfoundland and Labrador
9. Prince Edward Island
10. New Brunswick
Atlantic Provinces
Core Provinces
18.6 million, most Canadians live here, three largest cities are Toronto, Montreal, and capital city of Ottawa, and many jobs are here.

In Ontario most speak English, in Quebec most speak French, both are official languages of Canada, Chinese, Italian, and Portuguese are also spoken here.

Humid continental climate in the south, colder with less rain in the north, Winterlude held in February.

British and French influences, Gothic revival style, large stone buildings with tall pointed windows.

Economic Activity:
Manufacturing, farming (a third of all Canada’s farm products), and hydroelectric power.
5 million, fast growing area, Edmonton and Calgary are the fastest growing areas.
English is the first language of most people; French, German, and Ukrainian are also spoken.
Semiarid to humid continental in the south, subarctic in the north, polar bears migrate through Churchill every year.
Farms in the southern region, barns with silos to store grain.
Economic Activity:
Farming (half of all Canada’s farm products, mining, (more than half of all minerals in Canada), and oil (oil sands).
Prairie Region
Pacific Region
4 million, most people live in or near Victoria or Vancouver or on the western slopes of the Rockies, high Asian population.
English is the most people’s first language, Asian languages such as Punjabi, and Tagalog are also spoken.
Marine west coast along the coast, colder in the Rocky Mountains, winter surfing is a popular sport.
Strong British influence, some buildings look almost like castles.
Economic Activity:
Farming and forestry are important, but mining, shipping, and hydroelectric power are the largest industries.

The Territories
100,000 people, largest land area, smallest population, costly to live here because it’s so far from other places.
Most speak English as their first language; many Inuit continue to speak Inuktitut.
Tundra in the north, Subarctic in the south, all terrain vehicles are popular for transportation, dog sled racing is a popular sport.
Traditionally some Inuit made winter igloos from snow blocks, today most have house made from kits.
Economic Activity:
Hunting and gathering, nomadic herding, mining, government work.

Canada and the relations with the United States:
• The border between Canada and the United States is the longest undefended border in the world-more than 5,000 miles long and no fence exist along the Canadian-US border.
• Travelers between the two countries pay customs.
Fees charged by one country’s government on goods people bring in from the other country.
• Canada and US have important economic links. Canada buys nearly 25 percent of all US exports, and the US buys about 85 percent of Canadian exports.
• North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
was created and designed to establish a free-trade zone across all of North America. The agreement marked a giant step toward creating the world’s largest trading bloc, with about 444 million consumers.
Taxes on imports.
: North American Free Trade Agreement, which phased out trade barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
• Although there are many positive links between Canada and the US, some Canadians are uncomfortable because the relationship between the two nations is so uneven. Canada still struggles to prevent its National Identity from being overshadowed by the US.
Canada is a member of the Commonwealth,
which is a group of countries, mostly former British colonies, that now have independence under the symbolic protection of the British crown. Commonwealth nations often work together to promote better trade, health, and education in their countries.

Unit 3: Latin America
1. Mexico
2. Central America
3. South America
4. Caribbean Islands

Overview of Latin America:
Historical Overview: After Christopher Columbus landed in the West Indies in 1492, Spanish and Portuguese began to conquer and control much of Latin America. The Europeans brought enslaved Africans to work on the plantations in the Americas. The cultural convergence led to a new culture that combines Native American, European, and African traditions.
Cultural convergence: The contact and interaction of one culture with another.
Physical Characteristics: The Andes and other mountain ranges run the length of Mexico, Central America, and South America. They are part of the “Ring of fire” that encircles the Pacific Ocean. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common. The largest lowland areas are the Amazon River basin and pampas. Many islands are found in the Caribbean Sea. Some are tops of underground mountains in the sea. Others islands are formed by the thousands of years of accumulation of coral.
Pampas: grassy plains in southeastern South America.
Climate: Atmosphere and ocean currents affect climate conditions in Latin America. In summer and early fall, when ocean waters are warmest, storms form off West Africa. As they move west, some of them become tropical storms or gain even more power and become hurricanes. About every three years, an ocean current know as El Nino warms the Pacific waters off the coast of Peru. El Nino causes droughts and floods around the world.
Ecosystems: The Amazon rain forest is one of the largest ecosystems in the world. Other tropical rain forests are found in Central America, Mexico, and various Islands of the Caribbean. To the north and south of the Amazon rain forest are tropical grasslands. Arid regions of Mexico and South America support desert and desert scrub. In the Andes, ecosystems change with the elevation.
People and Cultures: Latin Americans trace their ancestry to Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans. Most people have a mixed ethic heritage. Mestizos, for example, are people of both Native American and European descent. People whose ancestry is African and European are known as mulattoes. Today, ethnic and cultural diversity is evident in Latin America’s growing cities.
Economics, Technology, and Environment: The economics of most Latin American countries have been based on cash crops such as coffee and bananas. Mining has also been important. Modern industry is expanding in the cities. Environmental concerns include air pollution and destruction of rain forests.

Physical Characteristics:
Mountains dominate Mexico. The largest mountain range in Mexico is the Sierra Madre. Mexico’s second great mountain range is the Sierra Madre Oriental, which runs parallel to the eastern coast, along the Gulf of Mexico. Between these two mountain ranges lies Mexico’s central plateau. Between the mountains and the ocean are Mexico’s different coastal plains regions. The northern Pacific coast includes Baja, California; which is a peninsula. The southern Pacific Coast, south of the central plateau, is a narrow strip of tropical coastlines. On the east, the Gulf coastal plain curves around the Gulf of Mexico into the Yucatan Peninsula.
Plateau: An area of high, flat land.
Peninsula: Strip of land surround by water on three sides.
Elevated areas in Mexico do not have tropical temperatures; however lower elevated areas in the plateau have a tropical climate.
The Coastal Regions:
Dry, hot, and thinly populated along the Pacific Coast. Despite the arid climate, the Northern Pacific Coast has some of the best farmland in the country. The reason is irrigation.
Irrigation: The artificial watering of farmland by storing and distributing water drawn from reservoirs or rivers.

Central America
Physical Characteristics:
Small region curves between the giant landmasses of North America and South America. Central America is an isthmus. Central America forms a land bridge between the two continents. Panama Canal is located in Central America and makes it possible for ships to cross the isthmus and sail between the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Seven countries occupy Central America. (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Diverse physical and human landscape. Great cultural complexity. Challenges are political, social, and economic.
Isthmus: A narrow strip of land, with water on both sides that connects two larger bodies of land.

The Caribbean Islands
Physical Characteristics: Consist of three island groups: The Greater Antilles, The Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas. All are located in the tropics.
Greater Antilles:
Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico.
An archipelago that includes 700 islands northeast of Cuba. All of the Bahamas are Coral Islands.
Lesser Antilles:
Archipelago that makes a curving arc separating the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. The rest, including Aruba, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Netherlands Antilles, hug the coast of South America.
A group of islands.
Coral Islands
: Islands with flatter terrain that were created by the remains of colonies of coral polyps.

Physical Characteristics:
The giant country located in South America. Nearly half the continent’s people and land lie within Brazil’s borders. Two major types of landforms are plains and plateaus. Behind the coastal plains is a huge interior plateau. As is drops sharply to the plains, it forms an escarpment.
Unlike the majority of Latin America, Brazil's National Language is Portuguese.
: A steep cliff that separates two level areas of differing elevations.
Challenges and Opportunities
: Economic development in Brazil. Farming and ranching. Deforestation is caused by over farming and ranching of the area.
: The process of stripping the land of its trees.

The Northern Tropics (Northern region of South America)
1. The Guianas
2. Venezuela
3. Colombia
• The Guianas: Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Tropical wet climate, vast stretches of rain forest, and narrow coastal plain on the Atlantic Ocean. Official language of Guiana is English, language of Suriname is Dutch, and French is the official language of French Guiana. Fewer than 1 million people.
• Venezuela: 24 million people. The poorest nation in South America. Official language is Spanish. Main religion is Roman Catholics.
• Colombia: Named after Christopher Columbus. The only country in South America that borders the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Population is around 40 million, which makes it the second most populous country on the continent.

The Andean Countries (Western region of South America)
1. Ecuador
2. Peru
3. Bolivia
4. Chile

Physical Characteristics:
Andes Mountains is the longest unbroken mountain chain in the world and second largest mountain range in the world.
A plateau region located in the Andes of Bolivia and Peru.

The Southern Grassland Countries: (Southern Countries of South America)
1. Paraguay
2. Uruguay
3. Argentina
• Physical Characteristics:
Southern South America. Bound together by a great river system. Several large rivers flow from the interior into the Rio de la Plata. The Plata is an estuary.
A broad river mouth formed where a flooded river valley meets the sea.

Unit 4: Western Europe
1. The British Isles and Nordic Nations
2. Central Western Europe
3. Mediterranean Europe

Overview of Western Europe:
Historical Overview:
By 35,000 B.C., people occupied most of Western Europe. Farming spread into Western Europe from Southwest Asia. Farming and migration caused Cultural Diffusion (in which peoples adopt the practices of their neighbors.) Over the centuries, forest vanished as farmers cleared and cultivated land. Large civilizations grew in Western Europe, such as Greece, Spain, France, England, and Italy. Exploration of these great countries would lead to discovery of new lands and the spread of Europeans into the Western Hemisphere. The Industrial Revolution first began in Western Europe and would spread to the United States and across the world.
Cultural Diffusion:

Process in which peoples adopt the practice of their neighbors.

Physical Characteristics:
Western Europe stretches from the Scandinavian Peninsula in the north to the Iberian Peninsula in the south. It is a relatively small region, yet it contains a great variety of physical features. The summits, or highest points, of the Alps contrast with the flat North European Plain. Oceans and Seas surround much of Western Europe, and rivers wind their way through fertile valleys.

The highest point of a mountain or similar elevation

Climates in Western Europe tend to be milder than those of other world regions that are located at the same latitudes. These temperate climates are caused by the relative locations of oceans and land-no point in Western Europe is more than 300 miles from the sea. Mountains also affect Western Europe’s climates. The Alps in the south and the mountains along the Scandinavian Peninsula create drier climates by blocking the winds that ride on ocean currents.

As in other industrialized regions of the world, humans have altered Western Europe’s ecosystem. Much of the original forests and grasslands were cut and cleared long ago to build farms, towns, and cities. Large wild animals, such as European bison, as well as smaller animals that once roamed freely over Europe have lost their habitats. Many can now be found in large preserves or in zoos. Yet, Western Europe’s ecosystems today support a variety of wildlife, including birds, bears, foxes, badgers, and deer.
People and Cultures:
Western Europe is one of the world’s smallest regions, occupying only about 3 percent of the world’s landmasses. Yet, it is one of the most densely populated regions in the world and is home to many cultures. The population, however, is not evenly distributed. The nations of Scandinavia are lightly populated, whereas the Netherlands is very densely populated.
Economics, Technology, and Environment:
During the Industrial Revolution, products began to make by machines in factories rather than by hand in homes. A wealth of natural resources helped transform Western Europe from an agricultural society to an industrial society. Today, Western Europe is one of the world’s most heavily industrialized regions.
The idea of free nationwide education originated in Europe in the 1800s. Today children in Western Europe and the United States are entitled to free primary and secondary education. Primary school is elementary, including prekindergarten and kindergarten. Secondary school includes middle school, high school, and vocational school. After completing secondary school, such as a university, technical college, or professional school.
The British Isles:
1. England
2. Scotland and Wales
3. Northern Ireland
4. Republic of Ireland

The many islands clustered off the northwest coast of Europe are called the British Isles. The largest island in the British Isles and in all of Europe – is Great Britain. The Island of Great Britain comprises three formerly independent countries: England, Scotland, and Wales. Together with Northern Ireland, they form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or simply the United Kingdom.
Physical Characteristics:
The English landscape is actually made up of three very different areas: the highlands, midlands, and lowlands.
Band of hills running the length of England’s west coast.
Thick veins of coal that fueled the country’s industrial revolution. Heavy industrial development means that some of England’s highest population densities are in the midlands.
: To the south and east are the lowlands of England. The lowlands have fertile soil and able to produce abundant crops. The lowlands provide England with some of its most productive farms.
Economic Activity:
Much of the area’s coal supply was used up during the Industrial Revolution. Since the 1970s, Britain has turned to oil and gas deposits beneath the floor of the North Sea as a source for fuel. To offset the loss of heavy industry, the government has encouraged the growth of Tertiary Economic Activities.
Tertiary Economic Activities:
Service Industries, such as finance, insurance, and tourism.


Physical Characteristics:
Wales is really a peninsula of Great Britain. Wales enjoys a marine west coast climate like the rest of Great Britain. However, the rain-carrying winds from the Atlantic pass over Wales before reaching England. Wales usually receives even more rain than southern England.
Language Culture:
Most of its 2.9 million people speak English, but nearly 20 percent still speak Welsh as their first language. Handed down from the Celtic peoples who lived in Wales for thousands of years, Welsh is spoken mainly in the mountains of northern Wales.
Physical Characteristics:
Scotland occupies nearly one third of the land area in the United Kingdom, but less than 10 percent of the nation’s population live there. The landscape is rugged. It bears the marks of heavy glaciers that moved across the northern part of Great Britain during the last ice age. Scotland is divided into three formal regions – the northern highlands, the central lowlands, and the southern uplands.
Northern Highlands:
Highlands are covered with moors – broad, treeless rolling plains. The moors, in turn, are dotted with bogs – areas of wet, spongy ground. Steady winds off the Atlantic Ocean bring abundant rainfall to the moors. The dampness of the soil limits plant growth to grasses and low shrubs such as purple heather.
Central Lowlands:
South of the highlands runs a long lowland region. Nearly 75 percent of Scotland’s people live in this region, stretching between Glasgow and Edinburgh.
Southern Uplands:
Closest to the English border, the Southern Uplands is primarily a sheep – raising region.
Scottish Economy:
Oil discoveries in the North Sea, off the northeastern shore of Scotland, have helped the economies of some cities such as Aberdeen. Computer and electronic businesses have also developed along the Clyde and Tweed Rivers. Some people call the Clyde Valley the Silicon Glen, after the area in California known as Silicon Valley. A glen is a narrow valley.

Northern Ireland and
The Republic of Ireland
Ireland is divided politically into two parts: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Ireland is also divided in religion between Protestant and Catholics. Finally, Ireland is divided culturally between the descendants of native Celtic peoples and the descendants of English and Scottish immigrants.
Physical Characteristics:
The Island of Ireland is shaped like a huge bowl. Hills ring most of the coastline, while the middle of the island is a plain that drains into the River Shannon. Ireland’s moist marine west coast climate keeps vegetation a brilliant green for most of the year. To the eye, Ireland lives up to its nickname, the Emerald Isle. About one sixth of the island is covered by
peat – a spongy material containing waterlogged mosses and plants.
Because Ireland has few forests, farmers cut and dry blocks of peat as fuel for cooking and heating. The Republic of Ireland recently developed a method for using peat to power plants, which now produce nearly one quarter of the nation’s electricity.
Today, a little over half of Northern Ireland’s people are Protestant. Most of the rest are Catholic. Most Catholics support the reunification of Ireland, whereas most Protestants oppose reunification.
Cultural Divergence:
The deliberate efforts to keep the cultures separate.

The Nordic Nations: (Norden)
1. Iceland
2. Norway
3. Sweden
4. Finland
5. Denmark

The people of northern Europe call their land Norden, from an ancient word meaning – “Northlands.” Norden includes five independent nations: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland. These nations, called the Nordic nations in English, are unified as a region by location and strong cultural bonds.
Physical Characteristics:
Norden is identified as a region in part by its location in the northern latitudes. Parts of some Nordic nations reach past the Artic Circle into the polar zone. The region has varied landscape. The region is a collection of peninsulas and islands separated by seas, gulfs, and oceans. Much of the landscape on the Scandinavian Peninsula is the product of the last ice age. Glaciers carved out thousands of lakes across the peninsula. When the glaciers melted, water filled the valleys, creating flooded glacial valleys known as fjords.
Natural Resources:
In Iceland, volcanoes and glaciers exist side by side. Icelanders call their island “a land of fire and ice”. They have learned to take advantage of the island’s geology to produce Geothermal Energy, or energy produced from the heat of the earth’s interior. Today, geothermal energy accounts for a large share of the power used for heat and electricity in Iceland.
Geothermal Energy:
Energy produced from the heat of the earth’s interior.

Norden’s location to the far north results in long winters and short summers. At midwinter the sun may shine only 2 or 3 hours a day. In midsummer, it shines for more than 20 hours a day. Winter is when the greenish white and red lights of the
Aurora Borealis, northern lights
, shine most brightly in the Nordic nations. These lights appear when atomic particles from the sun, attracted by the magnetic fields of the North Pole, break through the northern atmosphere. Half of Iceland, all of Denmark, the west coast of Norway, and southern Sweden has mild marine west coast climates. The coldest areas in Norden to southern Sweden have mild marine west coast climates. The coldest areas in Norden lie just east of a mountain chain that runs northeast to southwest through Norway.
Religion unites the Nordic people. Most Nordic peoples belong to the Lutheran Church, first established during the Reformation. With the exception of Finnish, Nordic languages have common roots. Finland is bilingual and most Finns have a working knowledge of Swedish, Finland’s second language. In addition, Nordic schools require students to learn English, which helps bridge any linguistic differences.
Economy and Government:
All five of the Nordic nations are democracies, and their economic systems are
Mixed Economies, or systems combining different degrees of government regulation.
They practice a mixture of free enterprise and socialism. As a rule, the Nordic nations are politically neutral in foreign affairs. That is, they do not take sides in international disputes. Currently, Norway refuses to open its excellent harbors for military use. It also forbids the storage of nuclear weapons on its territory. Denmark and Sweden actively promote peaceful solutions to international crises. Compared with other regions in the world, the Nordic nations have sound economies. Denmark and southern Sweden have flat land and a mild climate suitable for agriculture. Denmark uses 60 percent of its land for farming and in recent years produced more than three times the amount of food needed to feed its people. Fishing is also an important economic activity. The region also profits from oil and gas production, high-grade ores, and vast expanses of forest.
Mixed Economy:
A economic system combining (or mixing) different degrees of government regulation.

Central Western Europe:
1. France
2. Germany
3. The Benelux Countries
4. Switzerland and Austria

France is located south of the United Kingdom, north of Africa, and between Spain, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy.
Physical Characteristics:
France looks like a hexagon and is roughly six sided. Water borders three sides (Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea). Mountains form barriers on two other sides.
France maintains a strong national identity, historic culture, and strong economy. The people of each of France’s regions proudly continue their own traditions and way of life. From rich farming areas to huge, urban manufacturing and commercial centers, the different regions of France contribute to France’s varied Market Economy. Paris is the economic, political, and cultural capital of France. In the Southern parts of France, the air is warmer and the soil is drier making the land more suitable for growing grapes. Southwestern France’s climate makes this area a great place to farm grapes used for wine.

Market Economy:
An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.
Language and Culture:
Language and culture play an important role in French culture. Several languages are still spoken in various parts of France. Several different dialects are spoken in France. French, however, is the national language.
Variations of a language those are unique to a region or community.
France is a wealthy nation, however has faced economic challenges in the past due to history, such as war, and recessions.
An extended decline in business activity.
A sharp, widespread rise in prices.

Germany is located in the most central region of Western Europe. Germany borders France, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.
Physical Characteristics:
the physical regions of Germany are varied. Germany can be divided into three bands that extend across the country. The high, craggy mountains of the south turn into hills, low peaks, and tall plateaus in central Germany before leveling off into the flat lands of the north. Germany has a mild climate due to the influence of the North Sea. The southern areas of Germany have colder winters and warmer summers. Germany has two major rivers, the Rhine and the Elbe.
Germany is most known for its involvement in World War II and the Berlin Wall.
Germany has a strong industrial economy.

The Benelux Countries:
1. The Netherlands
2. Belgium
3. Luxembourg

Switzerland Culture:
Most known for being a neutral country and for their banking system.
Not taking sides during a conflict.

Switzerland and Austria
Mediterranean Europe:
1. Spain and Portugal
2. Italy
3. Greece

Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Greece have a Mediterranean Climate of mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Spain’s elevation has a strong influence on its climate. Spain and Portugal are a peninsula that is surrounded by water on three sides (Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Mediterranean Sea). Spain is also known for the Strait of Gibraltar. Spain is also known for its Cultural Divergence.
Cultural Divergence:
The restriction of a culture from outside influences.


Church of St Mary in the hollow of the white hazel trees, near
the fierce whirlpool and the Church of St Tysilio, by a red cave.
Tartan of Campbell
Je m' appelle...
Ca va?
Est-ce que je peux alle au toilette?
Je ne sais pas!
Unit 5: Central Europe and Northern Eurasia
Central and Eastern Europe:
1. Poland
2. Czech and Slovak Republics, and Hungary
3. The Balkan Peninsula
4. Baltic States and Border Nations
Located along the Baltic Sea, South of the Nordic Nations, surrounded by Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, and France.
Most famous for its role during World War II and the Holocaust. Poland suffered greatly from World War II. Germany Nazis invaded Poland and gained control of the country. During Germany Nazis occupation of Poland, the Jews and other minorities were killed, forced to leave the country, or placed into ghettos. A ghetto is an area of a city where a minority is forced to live. This is called the Holocaust. Jews and minorities living in Poland were either killed or enslaved. The Polish people have fought for their country and refuse to allow foreign nations to take away their “National Identity”.
Physical Characteristics:
Most of Poland is covered by the North European Plain. Thick forests once covered the flat lands, but most of the trees were cut down long ago to create farmland. Today, Poland is two thirds open fields. Although much of Poland’s soil is fertile, it tends to become poor and sandy and thus less suited for farming in the east and northeast. In the northeast, around the Baltic Sea, thousands of lakes break up the landscape. Poland has severe winters and mild summers.
National Identity:
A people’s sense of what makes them a nation.
The word derives from a Greek word that means “a fire that burns something completely”.
Hungary and the Czech and Slovak Republics
1. Czech Republic
2. Slovakia
3. Hungary
Physical Characteristics:
This region is land-locked in Western Europe and lies between Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Austria. The landscape of Czech Republic and Slovakia has very few flat areas, except for the plains that lie beside the Elbe River and Danube River. This region is mostly farming and agriculture. Hungary has the best fertile soil in the region and is known as the “breadbasket” of Europe.

The Balkan Peninsula
1. Romania
2. Bulgaria
3. Albania
4. Macedonia
5. Serbia
6. Montenegro
7. Bosnia and Herzegovina
8. Croatia
9. Slovenia
10. Kosovo (Officially a province of Serbia, Serbians refuse to recognize their independence).
In 1918, a new term crept into the English language: Balkanize: Meaning to break up into small, mutually hostile political units. The term grew out of the complex cultural patterns and political geography of the Balkan Peninsula. Today, the Balkan Peninsula is divided into many small nations. Most of the fell under Communist control by 1948, but anti-communist revolutions overturned the governments of those states in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Internal strife and conflict between nations have continued to affect and dominate the region. Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, and Montenegro used to be the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until they split into different nations. Today, these countries continue to have political conflict between each other and they still have a great deal of economic uncertainty.
Meaning to break up into small, mutually hostile political units.
Physical Characteristics:
The Balkan Peninsula lies to the south of Austria, Hungary, and the Ukraine. The Balkan Peninsula is to the east of Italy. The Peninsula is surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, Black Sea, and Aegean Sea. Greece and Turkey are also part of the peninsula and lie south of the Balkan Nations. The Balkan Nations landscape is mountainous terrain, hills, and little lowlands.

Baltic States and Border Nations
1. Estonia
2. Latvia
3. Lithuania
4. Belarus
5. Ukraine
6. Moldova
The small nations of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia are tucked along the eastern edge of the Baltic Sea. These three countries are located between Russia and Poland. South of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova. Belarus is an inland country land-locked between Poland and Russia. Ukraine and Moldova lie along the Black Sea. Located here is the Crimean Peninsula within the Black Sea. Historically Russia has sought to gain control over the Crimean Peninsula due to its warmer ports within the Black Sea. Moldova and Ukraine lies between Russia and Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania.

Russia is the world’s largest country in terms of land area. Look at a globe, and notice how its sprawls more than three quarters of the way across the northern part of the Eurasian continent. Compare Russia with the world’s next largest countries: Canada, the United States, China, and Brazil. Russia’s land area is nearly twice the size of any two of these other large nations. From West to east, Russia stretches across eleven time zones. Before people in St. Petersburg (along the Western coast of Russia) have gone to bed on Tuesday evening, it is already Wednesday morning on the Kamchatka Peninsula (along the Eastern coast of Russia). Russia lies between Central Europe and Japan. Russia is north of Mongolia and China. Russia also borders the Arctic Ocean in the north. Also located in Russia is the Asian expanse Siberia. Russia has made great efforts to link this area with the rest of the nation; however, it continues to be a remote area with relatively few human residents.
Physical Characteristics
: Russia has varied terrain, although the landscape generally has specific characteristics in different regions. Its highest points lie along its southern and eastern borders. The highest mountain range is the Caucasus, which stretches from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. While mountains make parts of Russia in the south and east, most of the land in Russia is fairly flat. The Ural Mountains extend from north to south across the plains and dividing Europe from Asia. Russia also has the Caspian Sea, which is a land-locked lake making it the largest lake in the world. Siberia makes up most of East Russia.

Natural Resources:
Most of Russia’s rich natural resources are located in Siberia. Siberia has rich reserves of gold, silver, platinum, and zinc, as well as petroleum and natural gas. However, the harsh climate and terrain of the region often make it difficult and very expensive to reach these areas with abundant natural resources especially due to the Permafrost.
A layer of permanently frozen soil.
The physical processes that is the first step in soil formation. It is the chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil.

The climate in most parts of Russia is subarctic or continental. Winters are long and bitterly cold. The coldest temperature ever recorded outside of Antarctica was in far eastern Russia. (-94 F degrees). Summers are shorter, but daytime temperatures still can exceed 80 F degrees. Spring and fall tend to be brief periods of transition between the freezing winters and warm summers. Climatic conditions become more severe as one moves toward northern Russia closer to the Arctic Ocean.
Russia has a very rich and long history with periods of extreme violence as well as huge political changes.
Economy and Government:
Once Communist and now a Democratic Nation that practices Free Markets.
A region where temperatures are always cool or cold and only specialized plants can grow.
Thinly scattered, coniferous forests found in Europe and Asia.
temperate grassland found in Europe and Asia.

Overview of Central Europe and Northern Eurasia:
Historical Overview:
By 4000 B.C., Peoples living on the steppes of present-day southern Russia and Ukraine became the first humans train and bred horses in a process called domestication. The Russian Revolution of 1917 led to the establishment of the Soviet Union. The new nation of the Soviet Union adopted communism, a system in which the government controlled almost all aspects of political and economic life. After WWII, the Soviet Union gained Communist control over Eastern Europe. During the Communist control over Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Northern Eurasia, Communist governments often encouraged rapid and destructive industrial development with little concern for the environment. Because of this, some regions of Central Europe and Northern Eurasia are suffering heavy economic losses and low agricultural output. Soviet domination lasted until 1989, when countries began adopting democracy and market economies. The Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, breaking up into: Russia and smaller national states such as Ukraine and Belarus.
The process of training and breeding animals for use by humans.
A System in which the government controls almost all aspects of political and economic life.
A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy.
Market Economy
: An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand.

Physical Characteristics:
Central Europe and Northern Eurasia form a huge region composed of many nations. One of these is Russia, the world’s largest nation. Some geographers contend that the Ural Mountains in Russia mark the border between Europe and Asia. Some geographers suggest that Europe and Asia should be viewed as a large single continent called Eurasia. The land is flat in the west and rises higher toward the east and south. The Danube River is the second-longest river in Europe. Parts of this region lie above the Arctic Circle.
Several major climates dominate the vast region of Central Europe and Northern Eurasia. Subarctic, tundra, and humid continental climate regions cover much of Russia. A smaller portion of the region enjoys milder weather.
A region as large as Central Europe and Northern Eurasia is bound to have a variety of ecosystems. The tundra, a treeless plain in arctic areas where short grasses and mosses grow, is found where the region touches the Arctic Ocean. South of the tundra are coniferous forests and expansive grasslands known as the Steppe.
A region where temperatures are always cool or cold and only specialized plants can grow.
Thinly scattered, coniferous forests found in Europe and Asia.
Temperate grassland found in Europe and Asia.

People and Cultures:
Movement has been easy throughout history due to few physical barriers, such as mountains or wide oceans. People settled in the region to gain control of natural resources and territory, to flee religious or political persecution, or to find a better life. Migration has made most nations of the region multiethnic, containing many ethnic groups.
Containing many ethnic groups.
Economics, Technology, and Environment
: Since the late 1980’s the economies of Central Europe and Northern Eurasia have moved from communism to some form of capitalism. Human processes of Economic Activity contributed to big changes in the political boundaries of Central Europe and Northern Eurasia during the 1980s and 1990s. In a Communist economy, the government controls the means of production and distribution of goods and services. In a capitalist economy, producers and consumers control business, with some government regulation.

Unit 6: Central and Southwest Asia (The Middle East)
1. The Caucasus and Central Asia
2. The Countries of Southwest Asia
Overview of Central and Southwest Asia:
Historical Overview:
The Fertile Crescent, stretching from modern Iraq to Israel, was the birthplace of both agriculture and civilization. The Arabic-speaking tribes of the Arabian Peninsula adopted Islam, another monotheistic (belief in only one God) religion, and founded an Islamic empire. Islam gained control of most of Central and Southwest Asia. Over the following centuries, European states sought power over the region. After the Ottoman Empire’s (present day Middle East) defeat in World War I (Ottoman Empire sided with Germany in WWI and lost), European powers divided it into a number of nations and protectorates, or areas that have their own government but are controlled by an outside power. Palestine, a former Ottoman Territory, had begun attracting Jewish migrants from other parts of the world seeking to form a new society in their ancient homeland. By 1945, the former Ottoman territories of Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq gained independence, and the last of the British protectorates gained full independence in 1971.
War broke out between Palestinian Arabs and Jews over control of Palestine, and the victorious Jews founded the state of Israel in 1948. Most Palestinian Arabs fled to neighboring countries or to the West Bank. This was the first of several Arab-Israeli conflicts. Today, residents of Muslim countries are divided between supporters of Western-style democracy and supporters of Islamic rule. The Iranian revolution of 1979 established Islamic rule there. Following the collapse of Saddam Hussein’s rule by American and British troops in 2003 Gulf War, Iraq edged toward democracy despite violent opposition. Despite political uncertainties, many nations in the region are prospering economically. Turkey, Israel, and other nations have developed modern industries. Oil production has brought wealth to the Persian Gulf countries.
Belief in only one God.
Areas that have their own government but are controlled by an outside power.

Physical Characteristics:
Towering Mountains and vast, arid plains cover much of Central and Southwest Asia. Large plateaus in Turkey and Iran are framed by mountains that experience frequent earthquakes. In Southwest Asia, deserts cover much of the plains except where rivers provide water for irrigation. In Central Asia, two of the world’s great deserts, the Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum cover the low plains of the southwest, while rolling grasslands cover the northern plains. The Aral Sea, Tigris River, Euphrates, Syrian Desert, Dead Sea, Red Sea, Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Caucasus Mountains are also major physical features of Central and Southwest Asia.
Most of this region has an arid climate, with very little precipitation, or a semiarid climate, which receives limited seasonal precipitation. Mountainous and coastal parts of this region have cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. Parts of Georgia are relatively warm and moist, whereas northern Kazakhstan experiences cold, snowy winters and hot, rainy summers.
Desert ecosystems cover large parts of this region. Areas with slightly higher rainfall support temperate grasslands. Forest grows in the region’s mountains and river valleys; chaparral, an ecosystem based on drought-resistant herbs and bushes, is dominant near the coasts of the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

People and Cultures:
Water is a scarce resource across much of this region, and the population is concentrated in fertile river valleys and the rainier coastal areas along the Black and Mediterranean Seas. The arid deserts of the region have very few inhabitants. Despite its forbidding environment, the region has a rich cultural history. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all developed in the region. Although each religion has many local followers, most people in Central and Southwest Asia are Muslims.
Economics, Technology, and Environment:
Most of the land of this region is used for livestock raising and nomadic herding, the majority of its people live in urban areas, where services and industry are the main economic activities. In areas with fertile soils and water supplies, subsistence and commercial farming are important. There is very little economic activity in some of the region’s deserts. Petroleum and natural gas deposits are among the region’s main sources of wealth.

The Caucasus Countries:
1. Georgia
2. Armenia
3. Azerbaijan
These countries are named the Caucasus Countries because these region lies between the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.
History and Culture:
This area is home to many ethnic groups. Some of these different ethnic groups have tried to gain their autonomy and form their own small country. In addition, the Caucasus Countries have spoken a variety of languages and held various religious beliefs. The modern nations of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan maintain their traditions, occupying lands their ancestors have fought for and defended for many centuries. Because of so much diversity in ethnic groups and European Wars, this area has also suffered genocide, the systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people. For much of the last century, all three nations existed as republics in the former Communist Soviet Union. Their populations still contain many Russians and Ukrainians. Likewise, their economies are still closely tied to Russia and other former Soviet nations. Many of their problems today are rooted in past Soviet actions.
Independence (partial)
The systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people.

The Central Asian Nations:
1. Kazakhstan
2. Uzbekistan
3. Turkmenistan
4. Kyrgyzstan
5. Tajikistan
The Central Asian region stretches from the Caspian Sea east to the towering mountain ranges along China’s western border. The five nations of Central Asian gained their independence after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Each of these nations has a similar name. The “STAN” that forms the last syllable of each name means “the land of” and the first part of each name is the name of an ethnic group whose people are the largest group in the nation. For example, In Kazakhstan, the land is made up of the Kazakh people.
Physical Characteristics:
The terrain of the Central Asian nations varies. The Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai Mountain ranges are in the southeastern part of the region. Farther to the west, the elevation drops and the land flatten. Two large rivers, the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya, spill out of the mountains and flow down through the lowlands to the Aral Sea. Due to the Soviet Union’s human-environment interaction while they controlled Central Asia, the Aral Sea has been destroyed. Soviet engineers diverted water from the rivers that feed the Aral Sea, a landlocked salt lake, to irrigate farmland in Central Asia. The sea has shrunk dramatically, and salt flats now cover the exposed lake bed. The irrigation project devastated the Aral Sea Region causing desertification, the extension of the desert landscape through the activities of people and livestock as well as climatic changes.

The Countries of Southwest Asia (The Middle East):
1. Turkey
2. Syria
3. Lebanon
4. Israel
5. Iraq
6. Iran
7. Saudi Arabia
8. Qatar
9. United Arab Emirates
10. Oman
11. Yemen
12. Kuwait
13. Jordan
14. Cyprus
History and Creation of the Modern Middle East:
History and Culture:
The Middle East -as Southwest Asia has long been known- has a long and turbulent history. More than three thousand years ago, the region’s great wealth and location at the center of trading routes between Europe, Africa, and Asia made it an important source of power. This area was conquered repeatedly by groups from within and without. The movement of conquering peoples across the Middle East gave the region a unique cultural pattern. It became a tangle of diverse ethnic groups and religious beliefs.
History of Arabs and Jews:
In 1914, World War I broke out. Great Britain, France, and Russia, and the United States known as the Allies, were on one side. On the other side were Germany and Austria-Hungary, known as the Central Powers. The Ottoman Empire (Middle East) joined in alliance with the Central Powers. Although World War I was fought mainly in Europe, it greatly affected the course of modern Middle Eastern history. Soon after the WWI, the allies began secret negotiations to decide how to divide the Ottoman Empire when the defeated the Central Powers. Great Britain worked out an agreement with the Arabs that if they helped the allies fight the Ottoman Empire during WWI, the Arabs would gain all of the Middle East except for the Arabian Peninsula. After the war, the European allies went against their agreement with the Arabs and instead divided the land up among themselves and governed the land under European rule. Eventually, the Middle Eastern countries would begin to gain their own independence. After 1940s, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon had been established as independent countries. The political future of what remained of Palestine after the creation of Jordan was still to be decided.
The issue of independence for Palestine created a dilemma for Great Britain. Two groups claimed Palestine as their homeland – The Arabs and Jews. The Arabs had lived for centuries in Palestine. But the Jews also had ancient historical ties to Palestine. The Jews lost their land and were exiled by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. The European Nations began to support the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine without violating the rights of Arabs living there. The Jews were pleased; however, the Arabs were furious. Conflict grew stronger between Arabs and Jews. After WWII, Jews flooded into the Jewish state of Palestine. After the War and because of the Holocaust, the Jews gained further support of their immigration to Palestine. In response to the call for a Jewish homeland, the nations of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Yemen formed the Arab League in support against the Jewish nation. The United Nations made the decision to give the Jews half of the land of Palestine for the creation of a Jewish Nation. The Arabs were given the other half of Palestine, which were mostly desert areas. In May 1948, the new state of Israel was formed. Because of this decision the Arabs felt betrayed and that the holy land of Palestine and Jerusalem was stolen from them. As a result, many Palestinian Arabs were forced out of the homeland. Because of this, conflict continues to grow between Israel, Jews, European Nations, and Arabs.
Lies along the Mediterranean Sea between Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt.
Physical Characteristics:
The Sea of Galilee, Jordan River, Dead Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Nazareth, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho, and Negev Desert.
Jewish Culture
Economy and Government:
Commercial Farming is a major economic activity in Israel because the Israelis have used technology so that they can grow crops on desert land, called Drip Irrigation. Constant violence/conflict between the Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews because the Arabs, believe strongly that Israel does not have the right to exist as an independent Jewish State.

Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq:
Between Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Israel. These countries have an arc of rich land known as the Fertile Crescent. These countries remain at the center of Southwest Asia today and often are the focus of political, economic, and social challenges that affect the entire region. Within this region is the Syrian Desert, small part of the Persian Gulf to the Southeast and Mediterranean Sea in the northwest, borders and shares the Jordan River and Dead Sea with Israel. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are the main valuable rivers, which is shared by Turkey, Syria, and Iraq.
A severe restriction of trade with other countries.

Arabian Peninsula:
1. Saudi Arabia
2. Kuwait
3. Qatar
4. United Arab
5. Oman
6. Yemen
Location and Physical Characteristics:
The Arabian Peninsula is surrounded by the Red Sea to the West, Indian Ocean to the South, and the Persian Gulf to the East. The world’s largest sand desert, Rub’ al-Khali, is located in this region. The Peninsula has no single body of fresh water and has the least amount of water than any other landmass in the world. Because of the large desert and little water, Wind Erosion plays the greatest role in shaping the landscape of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula has the world’s largest known petroleum reserves.

Turkey, Iran, and Cyprus:
Turkey is an Isthmus of land that lies between two bodies of water, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Northern Turkey connects to Europe, while southern Turkey connects to Asia. Iran lies between the Central Europe, Middle East, Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Far East. Iran shares the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Indian Ocean. Cyprus is an island country in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea.
Turkey and Iran are different from the other countries in Southwest Asia. Although the majority of people in Turkey and Iran are Muslim, they are not Arabs. They speak different languages, and they trace their ancestors back to different roots than the Arabs. There are strong divisions within the country due to some Iranians believing that Iran should be run as a democracy and the ayatollahs believe that Iran should be governed in strict obedience to Islamic Law. People of Cyprus share ancestry from Greek colonist.

Unit 7: Africa
a natural or artificial lake used to collect water for human needs, as in farming and drinking water.
the process of stripping the land of its trees.
At of countries in Africa are landlocked, which means that they are entirely surround by land/other countries. They do not have access to a seaport, which limits the ability to easily trade around the would.
a system of government in which one ethnic group rules over others.
the policy of strict racial segregation in the Republic of South Africa, that
lasted from 1948-1994.
Unit 8: Southern Asia
Caste System:
a social hierarchy in which a person possesses a distinct rank in society that is determined by birth.
Buffer State: a country that separates two hostile countries.
Unit 9: East Asia and Oceania
Most people in India speak Hindi and English.
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh were are colonies of the British Empire up until World War II. Britain's most enduring colonial influence upon India is its constitutional government.
Autonomous Region
: a political unit with limited self government.
Provisional Government:
a temporary government pending permanent arrangements.
A mass migration from a region.
Demilitarized Zone:
a strip of land where troops or weapons are not allowed.
native to or living naturally in an area or environment.
remote, sparsely settled, arid, and rural country of the central and western plains and plateaus of Australia.
a natural hot spring that shoots a column of water and stream into the air.
Like most island nations, Japan was created an overseas empire to compensate for the limited amount of natural resources available.
The divisions on the Korean Peninsula, led the North and South Korean governments to adopt different political and economic practices.
South Korea adopted a democratic, mixed economy based heavily on free enterprise.
North Korea adopted a communist dictatorship.

This continued difference, along with North Korean isolationism and embargoes placed on North Korea, has caused significantly different living standards between the North and South Koreas.

– Geographers begin to study a place by finding where it is, or its location.

– Geographers study the physical and human features of a location.

Human-Environment Interaction
– Geographers study how people affect or shape physical characteristics of their natural surroundings and how does their surroundings (environment) affect them?

The Five Themes:
– Helps explain how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another.

– Geographers compare the climate, land, population, or history of one place to another.

The Five Themes:
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