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Transcript of GreenRoofs
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Bianchini, F., Hewage K. (2012, December). Probabilistic social cost- benefit analysis for green roofs: A lifestyle approach. Building and Environment, Volume 58, Pages 152-162. doi:.1016/j.buildenv.2012.07.005.
City of Toronto. Green Roof Bylaw. Retrieved April 20, 2013 from http://www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/overview.htm#exceptions
Desert Ecology of Tuscan, AZ. Types of Photosynthesis. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://wc.pima.edu/~bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/plants_photosynthesis.htm
Getter, K. L., Rowe, D. B. (2008, July). Selecting Plants for Extensive Green Roofs in the US. Michigan State University. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.hrt.msu.edu/greenroof/PDF/08%20GetterRoweExtensionBulletin.pdf
Fairfax County Public Works and Environmental Sciences. (2007, February 1). Recommended Plant List for Intensive Vegetated Roofs. Retrieved April 22, 2013 from http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/dpwes/publications/lti/07-03attach1.pdf
International Green Roof Congress. Green Roof Types. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.igra-world.com/types_of_green_roofs/
Jim, C. Y., Tsang, S. W. (2011, June). Biophysical properties and
thermal performance of an intensive green roof. Building and Environment, Volume 46, Issue 6, Pages 1263-1274. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.12.013.
Lorinc, J. (2009, April 16). Toronto Mulls Mandatory Green Roofs. The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2013 from http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/toronto-mulls-mandatory-green-roofs/
Miller, Charlie (2012, November 27). Extensive Vegetative Roofs. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://www.wbdg.org/resources/greenroofs.php
Scherba, A., Sailor, D., Rosenstiel, T., Wamser, C. (2011, December). Modeling impacts of roof reflectivity, integrated photovoltaic panels and green roof systems on sensible heat flux into the urban environment. Building and Environment, Volume 46, Issue 12, Pages 2542-2551. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.06.012.
US Department of Energy. (2013, January 3). About EnergyPlus. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/energyplus_about.cfm.
US Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, January 15). Heat Island Impacts. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/impacts/index.htm
US Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, January 15). Green Roofs. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/greenroofs.htm Brooklyn Grange Intensive A green roof is the layer of vegetation grown on the rooftop. It has proven to be gaining more popularity with 8.5 million square feet built or in progress as of 2008. layer of soil (less than 2-6 inches)
no irrigation required
13-30 lbs/sq ft layer of soil (more than 6-8 inches)
35-100 lbs/ sq ft
$25 /sq ft Sedum (Stonecrop) False Rock cress Indian Grass Speedwell Hydrangea Study in Hong Kong 7 million people
Intensive green roof was established and observed for two years (March 2008-2010) to test out possible benefits
Roof grown with native trees A- New York City, NY (Zone 4) 8.4 million
B- LA, CA (Zone 3) 3.8 million
C- Chicago, IL (Zone 5) 2.8 million
D- Houston, TX (Zone 2) 2.3 million
E- Minneapolis, MN (Zone 6) 0.7 million
F- Portland, OR (Zone 4) .06 million Green roof can retain its heat from 10PM-5PM more effective than white and black roofs. During the midday hours, green and white roofs both peak at 47-49 degrees Celsius. Black roof peaked at 71 degree Celsius. Green roof is the only roof that has a positive flux (flow of energy). Summer peak flux Total daily flux Summer peak flux- highest amount of energy flow into the building usually occurs midday.
Total daily flux- accounts for energy flow average of day and night. Roof is 1615 sq ft
1 m of growing medium: 80 cm of soil mixed with 20 cm of compost
Roof had automatic sprinkler irrigation system
Sensors at different layers to monitor temperature Height of trees: 11.5 - 20 feet tall Summer sunny Winter sunny Summer sunny and winter sunny days have similar trends with a difference in the temperature.
Summer sunny: canopy 28-39.8 degrees C, ground surface 28-39.7 degrees Celsius
Winter sunny: canopy 14.8-25 degrees C, ground surface 14.8-25.3 degrees Celsius
Benefits Storm management, slower runoff
Mitigation of urban heat islands
Valuable investment overtime
Reduced energy usage
Reduced greenhouse emissions if the building is kept cooler. There is a lesser demand for air conditioning Sustainability Life span of 40- 55 years
Takes 25 years for green roofs to balance the pollution released from the production of the plastics used for waterproof membrane and barrier *What is the first North American city to mandate green roofs? New York City San Francisco Diane Loviglio: "so people don’t have to tour a giant industrial building to understand it." Architectural firm. Polyethylene bags were used, along with low maintenance plants and waterproof material Pictures http://www.countrysideaustin.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/sedum.jpg
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/05/green-roofs/cook-photography Green Roof Systems -- Heat Flux Study Stimulated by Energy Plus Study in the US tested prototypical buildings in six cities to compare the urban heat island impact of the roofs (black, white, green) that were unshaded and shaded (photovoltaic panels).
Conducted by using EnergyPlus
1. Building input file
2. Weather data Chicago