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Transcript of Literary Terms
Irony-an outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected.
1.) Students will define selected literary terms.
2.) Students will provide an example of and/or identify selected literary devices within a given text.
Point of View
Point of view-refers to the scope and source of the narrative voice.
What's the Point of View?
"Everyone has a defining moment in his or her life. For some it is the day they get married or have a child. For others it comes when they finally reach a sought-after goal. My life, however, drastically changed course the day my parents sold me into slavery. I was eight years old."
(Hidden Girl: the true story of a modern-day child slave)
Examples of Irony
I posted a video on Youtube about how boring and useless Youtube is.
Protagonist-The hero or "good guy" in a story.
Characterization- the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.
2 Main Types
1st Person Point of View-a story is told from the perspective of one character. The pronoun "I" will be used.
3rd Person Limited Point of View-the narrator ONLY knows the thoughts and feelings of one of the characters in the story.
3rd Person Omniscient Point of View- the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of ALL the characters in the story.
2nd Person Point of View-the story/piece of writing is told from the perspective of "you."
If you have a phobia of long words, you have to tell people that you have "Hippopotomonstrosesquipedaliophobia"
A web site that offers a free course on editing and proof reading has three glaring typos.
man versus man
man versus machine
man versus nature
man versus society
Man versus Himself
Antagonist-The character who opposes the hero in a story: the "bad guy." Think "anti."
2 Types of Characterization:
1.) Direct Characterization
2.) Indirect Characterization
Direct and Indirect Characterization
Direct Characterization-directly tells the audience what the personality of a character is.
Ex: The patient boy and quiet girl were both well-mannered and did not disobey their mother.
Indirect Characterization-SHOWS the personality of a character instead of directly telling the audience.
The boy slammed his books on his desk and flopped into his seat. He pulled the hood of his black sweatshirt over his face.
Static Character versus Dynamic Character
a character who does NOT learn, grow, or change throughout a story.
a character who learns, grows, or changes in some ways during the story.
Simile versus Metaphor
a comparison using "like" or "as"
Ex: His skin is as cold as ice.
a comparison WITHOUT using "like" or "as"
Ex: Her eyes were shining diamonds.
Hyperbole-an exaggeration used for emphasis or humor.
Ex: I've told you a million times!
Ex: This book weighs a hundred pounds!
Paradox versus Oxymoron
A statement that seems to contradict itself.
Ex: "War is peace."
Two WORDS that contradict one another.
Ex: "pretty ugly"
Ex: "jumbo shrimp"
Tone versus Mood
In a piece of literature or art, the
toward the subject matter or the audience.
An author creates the tone through word choice (diction), details, imagery, and language.
The way a piece of art or literature makes the
Allusion- a reference to a literary work, historical event, person, or place.
Ex: She has been hit with Cupid's arrow.
Theme: a moral, lesson, or underlying meaning of a story.
Themes often comment on a topic:
Symbol-a material object (or a person) that represents something else.
Ex: a ring is a symbol for love and devotion
Idiom-an expression that cannot be taken literally.
Ex: "He kicked the bucket."
Ex: "It's raining cats and dogs."
Pun-a play on words.
Ex: "Dreamer's often lie."
Ex: "I met a girl at an Internet cafe, but we just didn't click.
Parody-a literary or artistic work that imitates the author for humor or ridicule.
"It was many and many a year ago in a kingdom by the sea that a maiden there lived whom you may know by the name of Annabel Lee."
"It was a many and many a year ago in a bakery by BP that a maiden there lived whom you may know by the name of Sara Lee."
Allegory-a story that serves as an extended metaphor.
In other words, the characters, objects, and events in the story often stand for, or symbolize, concepts or ideas from the real world.
1.) What type of point-of-view has the narrator know the thoughts and feelings of ALL the characters in the story?
2.) What is the term for when the audience knows something the characters in the story do not?
3.) List 2 Types of External Conflict.
4.) Would the character of Rey in Star wars be a protagonist or antagonist?
1.) Which type of characterization occurs when the auther SHOWS the personality of a character through his/her actions, words, thoughts, and/or appearance?
2.) What do we call a character who does NOT change, learn, or grow throughout the course of a story?
3.) Give an example of a dynamic character from a book, movie, or television show.
1.) The following sentence is an example of what type of figurative language?
"The snow is a white blanket."
2.) The following sentence is an example of what type of figurative language?
"If you don't want to spend an eternity waiting in line at the post office, you should go to UPS."
3.) The following sentence is an example of what type of figurative language?
"Carly was as pale as death when she saw the masked man sneak up to her neighbor's house."
1.) What is the term for TWO WORDS that contradict each other?
2.) What is the term for the way a piece of art or literature makes the AUDIENCE feel?
3.) What is the term for the author's ATTITUDE towards the subject matter of a piece of art or literature?
1.) What is the term for the moral, lesson, or underlying meaning of a story?
2.) Give two examples of possible topics for a theme (you had a list in your notes!).
3.) What is the term for a material object that represents something else?
4.) What type of figurative language is the following sentence?
"One look at his mother's face, and Joe knew he was in hot water."
5.) What type of figurative language is the following sentence?
"I was wondering why baseball was getting bigger, then it hit me."
1.) Create an example of a simile.
2.) Create an example of a hyperbole.
3.) The following sentence is an example of which type of figurative language?
"Sky was so angry I nearly expected him to turn green and shred his shirt to bits by flexing his bulging muscles."
3 Types of Irony
-when the character says one thing but means another
-the audience knows what the character(s) do(es) not
Ex: In The Lion King, Scar acts like he is being nice to Simba, but we know that he is plotting to kill him.
-when what really happens is opposite of what you expect to happen.
Voice and Style
4.) Write down two words that can be used to describe the mood of this picture.
the way an author writes
the author's style, the quality that makes his/her writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude, personality, and character.
(point of view, word choice, structure, etc.)
time and place where the story occurs
Does it take place in the past, present, or future? Is the location fictional or real?
Look for clues!
descriptive words of phrases that create sensory experiences
Descriptions appeal to one or more of the 5 senses
Ex: The girl ran her hands over the soft, satin fabric.
Ex: The gray moss hung from the trees in stringy beards.
Foreshadowing vs. Flashback
repeating a word or words for emphasis
"Hear the sledges with the bells...
what a world of merriment their melody foretells...
Keeping time, time, time
In a sort of Runic rhyme,
To the tintinnabulation that so musically swells
From the bells, bells, bells
-Edgar Allan Poe
a word whose pronounciation imitates sound
a figure of speech in which human qualities are given to an object, animal, or idea.
Ex: The wind whispered in my ear.
giving the reader a hint of something that is going to happen.
an account of a conversation or event that happened before the beginning of a story.
1.) What is the term that means "time and place where the story occurs"?
2.) Which of the following senses does the following example of imagery appeal to?
"A host of golden daffodils
Beside the lake beneath the trees
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze
Continous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the Milky Way"
3.) Which term is defined as "a reference to a famous historical event, literary work, person or place"?
1.) In the book The Book Thief, the narrator of the story is Death. This is an example of what type of figurative language?
2.) Give an example of an Onomatopoeia.
3.) The following is an example of which device? In the Harry Potter movies Harry uses Dumbledore's magic pensieve to view memories of the past.
Ex: My love is like a red, red rose
What's the Point of View?
Jonas went to his own desk and began to sort through his school papers for the evening's assignment. But his mind was still on December and the coming Ceremony. Though he had been reassured by the talk with his parents, he hadn't the slightest idea what Assignment the Elders would be selecting for his future, or how he might feel about it when the day came.
What's the Point of View?
The bus is coming now, and you're staring at the tips of your black shoes. You've got to be prepared. You put your hand in your pocket, search among the coins, and finally take out thirty centavos. You've got to be prepared. You grab the handrail- the bus slows down but doesn't stop- and jump aboard.
-Aura by Carlos Fuentes
5.) The following is an example of what type of irony?
"This salsa could use a little more spice," Cody said as he gulped down water and wiped tears from his eyes.
Which passage has the more "playful" tone?
Passage A: "She straightened that crooked jersey, and patted her netter hair as she went, much in the manner of a countryman squaring for a fight. "
Passage B: "Anna Mikhaylovna opened the door. Her face had the expression of a surgeon who has just performed a difficult operation and wants the public to appreciate her skill."