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Getting Started Public Speaking

From Comm pgs. 33-35 And Pocket Guide chs. 1,2,4,7
by

Samuel Sloan

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Getting Started Public Speaking

Comm. pgs. 33-35 & Pocket guide chs. 1,2,4,7
Getting Started with Public Speaking
Often, public speaking is invited or takes place for a specific reason, but in those instances that you must come up with a topic, writing a speech is a lot like writing an essay.

There are many ways to write and revise a speech, but in here, we'll be using a formula that's most often used in professional environments.


From Idea to Speech:
Brainstorming
When developing a thesis statement, always keep in mind:
Purpose
- the goal, argument or message
(Every main point and sub point should speak back to the thesis statement. A good test is to read each point, then read the thesis statement and ask "does this point serve to prove my argument?" If not, consider cutting or altering the point until it does.)

Audience
- target group for the speech
(Pay attention to your audience, which in this case includes your classmates and instructor. What kinds of topics would this group of people be interested in hearing? Always keep your audience in mind when preparing your speech, and think about what kind of speeches would be well-received.)

Voice
- word choice, tone, pitch, rate, and formality of language
(Think about your tone of voice. Is this a serious topic? A happy story? A funny persuasive argument? Let those emotions show through - it's one of the primary ways you can connect to your audiences. Also watch your formality of tone, different kinds of speaking are appropriate for different kinds of speech situations. Variation of tone, pitch, and rate are the biggest keys to having an interesting delivery.)
To start brainstorming for a speech topic, you can start with
Word Association
.
Word Association is thinking of the first thing that pops into your head when you hear a word.
So, we might have a list like this:

Car: roadster, highway, running out of gas, gas prices, gasoline, petrol, overseas, Japan, Germany...
From that, I started to circle around gas, cars, and foreign countries. We could start making a
mind map
with any of these as a starting point.
Mind Mapping
involves taking a General topic and generating more Specific related topics.
The point is to always be getting more specific. We want an issue that can be talked about -fully- in our time frame.
Be thinking...
"What is a specific enough topic that I can reasonably or comprehensively cover in five minutes?"
Let's do an example together.
General Purpose
: Asks "What kind of speech is this?"
Speeches can be:
Informative:
information about something: yourself, others, a topic of interest.
Persuasive:
Persuading your audience: influence attitudes or beliefs, selling something, getting the audience to look at something the way you do.
Special Occasion Speeches:
speeches to entertain, to celebrate, to commemorate, to inspire, or to set a social agenda: these can include wedding toasts, eulogies, and speeches of inspiration
Now that we have chosen a
subject matter, it's time to
make the
general purpose

and the
specific purpose
.
Specific Purpose
: What do you want your speech to do?

The specific purpose is a statement, usually left unsaid in the speech itself, that states exactly what you hope the speech will accomplish.
Specific Purpose
What's the Gen. Purpose
of our Example?
What's the Specific Purpose
of our Example?
Example:
General Purpose: to persuade
Specific Purpose: to persuade my audience that recycling cans is socially responsible and profitable
Example:
My research into local recycling centers and pollution shows that recycling aluminum cans every time can both help the local environment and give you some money on the side.
Thesis Statement:
Your thesis statement should be clear & concise but cover everything you want to discuss in the speech.
Ideally, you should adapt the specific purpose into a good, solid sentence.
What's a good sentence that encapsulates the main idea of our specific purpose?
Avoid thesis statements like: "my thesis is..." or "I want this speech to be informative about how..."
Strive for a a clear tone and subject without sounding like a robot.
1) Attention Getter -
something INTERESTING that grabs the audience's attention. This could be a shocking fact, an unusual or alarming statistic, or even a non-verbal gesture or movement. Ask, "Why I want my audience to pay attention?"

These should typically be big and energetic. Remember, If you start a speech with high energy, it's much easier to roll the rest of the speech off of that than to start low and get more exciting.
Major Speech Parts:
Let's try to generate an Introduction
for our example.
Introduction:

(introduce the topic and purpose of the speech)
Intros have 3-4 parts:
1. First Main Point
A. Supporting Point
B. Supporting Point
(Transition)
2. Second Main Point
(Transition)
3. Third Main Point
A. Supporting Point
i. Sub Point
ii. Sub Point
iii. Sub Point
B. Supporting Point
BODY:
(develop main points
using a suitable structure)
1) Body sentences in outlines should be
FULL sentences
to reflect complete thoughts.

2) NEVER have a single supporting or sub point. A topic must have more than one idea to justify having a sub point.

3) Transitions
are used to move smoothly between categories.
Let's try to generate a body
for our example.
Conclusions have three parts, and are just like introductions in reverse, minus the statement of credibility.
Conclusion:

Leave the audience with something to think about or challenge them to respond to you.
3) Closing statement:
Should be memorable, like attention getter.
Try to go out with a "bang."
Remember, this is your last chance to make your point.


Ask, "Why should anyone remember your speech?"

Just make a statement, much like the attention getter. Give us a sentence, a fact, an emotion, anything. Just don't drop the ball at the end of a long speech, finish strong.

DO NOT just end your speech with "that's it" "I'm done" or similar phrases. If you get lost in your speech, just find your place, and make it back to the conclusion. Do your best to review the points you talked about and leave us with something to think about.
Get into groups of 3-4 and work with people who you haven't worked with before or don't know personally.
Start with brainstorming and work your way through to generating a basic speech with at least one sentence for each of the speech parts.
(informative speeches should be easiest)
For your mind map, everyone should start with the main topic of "supernatural creatures"
You will get some time to work, and when finished, each person in the group should give a portion of the speech.
Activity:
Let's try to generate a conclusion for our example.
Audience Analysis
:
Knowing key demographic information and general interest (temperature taking)

Adaptation
:
Reading your audience's responses on the fly and altering your approach (e.g. sticking with humor if audience laughs or abandoning a humorous approach)
Your entire speech encapsulated in ONE sentence: no more, no less.
Should be a test for everything in your speech: Does this section help to explain my thesis? No? Delete it.
3) Statement of Credibility:
Justification for why this speech is legit, coming from you as a speaker
(This is where you usually build your ethos as a speaker. )

Ask, "Why should you be talking about this, rather than someone else?"

Credibility go in any order, and for some speeches (like your first speech of introduction), it may not be necessary. Obviously, you have the authority to talk about your own life.
4) Preview:

State the main points of the speech as keywords in a preview that will serve as an introduction to the body.

So, in order to make a preview, we will have to figure out what our main points are and how we will move through them.


The preview is the most-often missed part of a formal speech. Says what you're going to say before you say it. Vital in a speech because people forget most of what they hear shortly after the speech is over. Only through creative repetition does the message stick.

2) Thesis Statement:
This is your specific purpose fleshed out, contains the central argument of your piece: all subsequent ideas should point back to this.
Ask,"What exactly is this speech about?"

At this point, we can simply plug in the Thesis we have already created.
This is the only optional part of an introduction because for some speeches (like a personal narrative speech), you may choose not to make an argument for your ethos.
Ask, "How is my speech going to be organized?"

1) Review:
Go over the topics you discussed in the body, serves as a transition into conclusion and helps summarize main points.

Ask, "What did I just say?"


The review is also often missed, but CRUCIAL for audiences to remember aspects of your speech. Repetition is required to get the message across.
Remember cognitive fluency.
2) Restate Thesis:
This is your thesis statement said in a different way, with the benefit of the analysis of the speech.


Ask,"What was my main point?"

This should not be word for word your thesis statement from before, but it should make that main point again in a strong and memorable way.
ALSO KEEP IN MIND:

Cognitive Fluency:
The idea that if you repeat something enough,
your audience will believe you, no matter what.

(advertising, infomercials, web marketing, political speeches, everyday speech making, etc.)
This is an important persuasive technique in our current age, and
The only way that your audiences will remember your message when they are bombarded with so many media messages.

Order of Operations For Crafting a Basic Outline:

1. First, we'll brainstorm.
2. Second, we'll generate a general purpose.
3. Then, we'll make a specific purpose.
4. From that, we'll craft a thesis statement.
5. Then, we'll come up with main idea sentences for the body.
6. From those main idea sentences, we can pull key phrases in
order to craft the preview and review.
7. Finally, we'll write the full introduction & conclusion.
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