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Copy of JOT2: Task 2
Transcript of Copy of JOT2: Task 2
There are three main learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Adapting Lesson Plans
to Fit Learning Theories Meeting the Needs of Your Learner Let's take a look at a sample lesson plan... See the difference? So which theory works best here at Goodwin Tech? References Standridge, M.. (2002). Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved <2 March 2013>, from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/ Behaviorism Behaviorism focuses on the measurable and observable outcomes of learning.
Followers of this learning theory believe that all human behaviors are learned, and that they can also be unlearned. (Standridge, 2002)
This is applied in the classroom through a series of rewards and punishments meant to teach the student appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.
ex.- A student is acting out in class. Every time the student doesn't speak out of turn in class, he earns a sticker, which can be used for a reward, such as free time at the end of a class. Cognitivism Cognitivism is a theory which attempts to answer how and why people learn by attributing the process to cognitive activity. (Campbell & Jorda, 2005) Constructivism Constructivism is a learning theory in which each individual has a unique concept of things based on personal experience. These concepts are extremely subjective and very personal. Learning happens when the experiences grow. (Campbell & Jorda, 2005) Some important ideas about Cognitivism:
1. Student learn by observing others
2. Students behaviors are directed by a goal
(good grades, gaining atention, etc.)
3. Over time, the behavior will regulate itself ex. You want to learn the electric slide, so you watch a group of peers until you feel comfortable enough to join in. (Hurst, 2010) A good way to put this is that students learn on their own, and teachers facilitate the process. Ex.- Students are reading a novel. Rather than answering questions at the end of the chapter, they come up with their own questions. Cognitivism- This theory is more appropriate for when your student needs to organize knowledge. This can be achieved though outlines, concept maps, modeling and using metaphors. Constructivism- This theory is most appropriate for when your student wants to build knowledge. This is achieved though field trips, project-based learning, research, and web quests. Immigration Web Quest
Length of Lesson: One 50 Minute Period
Materials Needed: Computer with Internet access, pen or pencil, Paper Procedure:
1. Log onto www.icivics.org and search "Immigration Web Quest"
2. Navigate through the web quest, making sure students complete all ten topics.
3. Record answers on a separate sheet of paper and turn in at the end of class.
Exit Ticket: Create three questions you still have that were not answered in the web quest. This lesson follows the Constructivist Learning Theory... Why you ask? This lesson plan was structured to provide students with the ability to produce their own knowledge, and to use the teacher as an aide and facilitator.
Each student will be learning the material in their own way, applying their personal experiences to the learning. (A student who has immigrant parents for example may be more knowledgeable about certain areas than students who do not.
Rather than listen to a teacher lecture, students are exploring real life documents, testimony, and information about immigration. They are able to use the teacher to facilitate, for example- a student may be reading about the process to get a green card, and have a question not on the website. The teacher can then help them navigate to other learning resources that will help them find their answer.
Each student will have different answers to the question, but the learning will be in a say that makes sense to them. So how do we adapt this lesson plan to fit other Learning Theories? Adapting the Lesson Plan to fit the Behaviorism Learning Theory An easy way to change the lesson plan would be to modify the method in which the students are receiving the information. Rather than having the class complete the task as a self-guided activity, complete the activity as a class.
Have students answer the questions out loud, and correct any answers that may be wrong.
As an exit ticket, ask a few questions that would reinforce the information presented. Let's Take a Look at our New Lesson Plan... Behaviorism Lesson Plan Procedure
1. Present Immigration Web Quest to students, lecturing on each slide.
2. At question check points, have students raise hand to provide answer.
3. When a student gets a correct answer, give the student a sticker. If the answer is incorrect, provide the correct answer.
4. Work through webquest until all slides are completed, asking questions from previous slides while waiting for new slide to load.
Ask students to complete the following questions:
1. what is the purpose of a green card?
2. What are push and pull factors?
3. What is Ellis Island? "Immigration According to the Internet"
Length of Lesson: One 50 Minute Period
Materials Needed: Writing Utensil, SmartBoard with Immigration Web Quest loaded, stickers The Constructivism theory would BECAUSE... 1. Our students are hands-on learners. They're used to "figuring things out" and working at their own pace.
2. Our school has a real-world approach. Our students are starting their trades after graduation, so real world application is critical to their success.
3. Constructivism works best with scaffolding. With our diverse immigrant population, this allows all students to work at their own pace, and to complete an assignment tailored to them without having to plan separate lessons.
4. It allows problem based learning. You can take a civics lesson, and apply it to the plumbing or carpentry trades. Topics our students can relate to keep their attention longer! Now that we understand Learning Theories...Lets take a look at how theories of can help us!!! Design Theories what are they and why do they work? What is a Design Theory? Design Theories are ideas and research focused on methods of instruction. Each theory of design has a different set of strategies and tools used to help the student learn. They assist in adaptation and development of lessons by providing teachers with different methods to provide information and evaluate learning. Different theories allow teachers to determine which worls best with their students. Three of the most well known theories are Wiggins Theory of Backwards Instruction, Gagne's Nine events of instruction, and elements of teaching for understanding Let's take a look at each one... Wiggen's Theory of Backwards Design Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction What is it? Teaching for Understanding What is it:
This is a four part design theory:
1. generating a topic- deciding what you want to cover, while keeping it relative and engaging for students.
2. understanding desired goals- similar to your essential questions- what is the "big idea" of the topic
3. understanding performance outcomes of the goal- what activities are you going to use to help students master the topic
4. conducting ongoing assessments- ensuring you are continually assessing students and providing feedback in order to correct and guide students. What is it? Also called Understanding By Design, this theory is a practice of "backwards design." The teacher decides what the desired outcome is, then works backward. After the outcome, the teacher decides what measurable evidence will prove that the students have achieved the desired results. Lastly, the teacher plans learning activities that will help the students. Strengths:
Helps to connect all learning activities to the expected outcome.
Puts the focus on learning instead of assessment.
Alows teachers to have more creativity and flexibility in lessons-by not focusing solely on the assessment, teachers are able to plan different activities Weaknesses:
Many schools rely on high-stakes testing for assessment (the need to only cover in class what will be on the test)
Can be time consuming, requires more up-front work than other design theories. 1. Gain Attention
2. Inform Learner of Outcomes
3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning
4. Prevent Stimulus Material
5. Provide Learner Guidance
6. Elicit Performance
7. Provide Feedback
8. Assess Performance
9. Enhance Retention and Transfer
A nine step process designed to help achieve learner outcomes. these nine steps are suggested to provide the maximum amount of learning and to stimulate retention among students. What are some Strengths and Weaknesses? Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction Strengths:
Provides guidelines to follow.
The Gain Attention event allows a student to get interested in the topic.
Flows smoothly through a lesson plan (easy to start with a gain attention
schema, stimulate recall, and move to providing stimulus in class)
Some goals and activities are difficult to place into one specific event.
Gagne claims order is not absolute. However, if drastic changes occur, this may effect learner outcomes.
Not every lesson calls for all nine steps.
Timely trying to fit many mini-segments into a period. (con'td.) Teaching for Understanding (con'td.) Strengths:
Allows students to understand knowledge rather than simply recall information.
Takes an "overall approach"- students can apply engligh learning in math, math material in science, etc.
Helps students to see the big picture. Weaknesses:
Not all students will understand everything.
Some students may understand concepts much quicker than others, and be left bored or waiting for others to "catch up." What Design Theory would work best at Goodwin Tech? Although each design theory could be made to work in any school, Wiggins theory of Backwards Design is the most effective here at Goodwin. Our students think very logically, and like to know that what they are learning is related to a measurable goal. By creating the outcome before the lesson plans, and having it posted on the board, our students know what the "end result" is. This is also the most beneficial because with only 90 academic days, compared to the 180 the traditional schools have, we are able to ensure that everything we are covering is directly relatable to our goals and expected outcomes. http://www.icivics.org/web-quests/immigration Jorda, M., & Campbell, S. (2005). In Cognitivism and Constructivism. Retrieved March 12, 2013, from http://www.coe.fau.edu/faculty/cafolla/courses/eme6051/cognitivism.htm
By: Loren Rozanski
Student ID: 000238398
JOT2: Issues in Instructional Design