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Transcript of CHINA
China is one of the four ancient civilisations-dating back to 3000 years ago- along with Egypt, Greece, and the Mesopotamians. The first dynasty began at the 21st century B.C, and united at 221 B.C. Here, we have narrowed it down to the eras of accomplishment, with dynasties that have made the economy boost or have built the now famous landmarks that stand.
Geographical Location of China
China is located in central Asia and shares a border with 14 countries
Including North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Laos and Vietnam.
They share a border with Hong Kong and Macau too, which are special autonomous regions in China.
Map of China
Consists of 22 provinces
5 autonomous regions (the freedom to govern the state by itself), Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet and Henan
Four central government controlled municipalities (cities, villages and towns controlled by one government), Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai and Tianjin
Two special autonomous regions, Macau and Hong Kong
China Sea, which consists of South and East China Sea
The sea's Northern boundary extends from the North point of Taiwan to the coast of Fujian.
Size of China
China is 9, 596, 961 km² in area
It's the 2nd largest country in Asia (With Russia being #1
1.4 billion people, the most populated country in the world. Despite it's large population, China is instituting the "One Child Policy" in which a family can only have one child.This policy prevents the country from over populating.
China population density map
Cold temperature zones: (Northern states) North part of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia (Represented state: Harbin)
Mid temperature zones: Jilin, Northern Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia
Warm temperature zones: Shandong, Shanxi, Hubei
Sub-tropical zones: East of Qinghai-Tibet
Tropical zones: (Southern states) Hainan, Southern Taiwan, Guangdong and Yunnan
According to this graph, southern regions are warmer than the northern regions, due to it's distance towards the north pole and the equator. And because of that China has four seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter
Average Rainfall Graph
Average Temperature Graph
Annual Precipitation throughout China
The green area indicates land at sea level
Brown indicates mountainous regions
• Picture shows that mountainous areas are more likely to be at the Northwest part of China, because China is also bordered by Nepal, the Himalayas go through China as well.
• Sea level areas are mostly in Northern, Southern and Eastern areas of China
China reserves of coal, iron, tin, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, mercury, graphite, antimony, magnesite, fluorspar and other resources
Top 5 longest rivers in China
- Yangtze River (6,300 km)
- Yellow River (5,464 km)
- Heilongjiang River (4,370 km)
- Songhuajiang River (1, 927 km)
- Zhujiang River (2,200 km)
Yangtze River facts
• The Yangtze river network covers 1,800,000 square km
• It holds 18.8% of China
• It passes through Sichuan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Hunan, Jiujiang and Shanghai, also the Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges Dam
• It’s the biggest hydropower project and most well known dam.
• It’s 607 feet tall and the top is 3,319 yards wide
• It took 17 years to finish the construction of the whole dam.
• It caused displacement of people, cities and towns flooded, it caused submergence of factories and mines which then caused water pollution due to the industrial waste, pollutants and rubbish in the factories.
The Xia Dynasty
The founding of China's first dynasty, Xia Dynasty in the 21st century B.C. marked a change from a primitive society to a slave society.
In 221 B.C., Ying Zheng ended the rivalry among the independent principalities in the Warring States Period
Established the first centralised ethnic state in Chinese history
The Qin Dynasty
Shi Huang Di, also known as Qin Shi Huang, or First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty.
Standardised script, currencies, and weights and measures
Established the system of prefectures and counties
Began the construction of the Great Wall
Liu Bang, a peasant leader, overthrew the Qin regime in with Xi’ang Yu, an aristocratic general.
Few years later, Liu Bang defeated Xi’ang Yu and established the Han Dynasty in 206 B.C.
The Han Dynasty
Agriculture, handicrafts, and commerce were well developed.
During reign of Emperor Wudi, the Han dynasty reached the period of its greatest prosperity.
Became more united during the Han dynasty,
Existed in total 426 years.
Conquered many regions
Pioneered the route ‘Silk Road’
The Imperial Era
Song and Yuan Dynasties
Zhao Kuangyin founded the Song Dynasty
Handicraft industry and domestic and foreign trade boomed. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad.
Genghis Khan unified all the tribes in Mongolia, founded the Mongol Khanate. Kublai Khan conquered the Central Plain, founded the Yuan Dynasty
Made Dadu (today's Beijing) the capital.
Kublai Khan, the first man to name BEIJING the capital of CHINA.
Ming and Qing Dynasty
Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty
When his son Zhu Di, ascended to the throne, he started to build the palace, temples, city walls, and moat in Beijing.
Officially made Beijing his capital.
Manchus people who lived for many centuries mainly in Manchuria conquered China and ruled for more than 250 years . Manchus invaded the Central Plain for three generations in succession
Finally founded the Qing Dynasty
Forbidden City, The Imperial Palace of Ming and Qing Dynasty
Revolution of 1911
The monarchical system was discarded
Founded the provisional government of the Republic of China.
Victory, however, was compromised by concessions on the part of the Chinese bourgeoisie.
The country entered a period dominated by the Northern Warlords, lead by Yuan Shikai
China has since entered a new Communist era of stability.
The Reform and Opening Up policies of 1978, bringing in China’s phenomenal economic growth.
Concessions-A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity. Public services such as water supply may be operated as a concession.
Treaty ports-The treaty ports was the name given to the port cities in China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea that were opened to foreign trade by the unequal treaties.
Economic Growth Rate: 7.7% (2013 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $9.33 trillion
GDP per capita: $9,800 (2013 est.)
- Agriculture: 10%
- Industry: 43.9%
- Services: 46.1%
Value of exports: $2.21 trillion (2913 est.)
Export commodities: Electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits.
Landmarks and Attractions
Great Wall at Mutianyu in Beijing
Summer Palace in Beijing
Temple of Heaven in Beijing
Big Buddha in Hong Kong
Shanghai World Financial Center in Shanghai
Xi'an City Wall in Xi'an
Potala Palace in Lhasa
Chi Lin Nunnery in Hong Kong
Lama Temple in Beijing
Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai
Great Wall of China
Temple of Heaven
Xi'an City Wall
Chinese people use chopsticks to eat instead of forks and spoons, they also have different types of food in different regions of China.
They often go by the eating habits of 'South-Sweet, North-Salty, East-Hot and West-Sour". And because of that different regions have different kinds of food.
China's official language is Mandarin, but in different regions of China there are different dialects. There are 292 living dialects now in China.
China's currency is called Renminbi, which is issued by the People's Bank of China. The unit for Renminbi is Yuan, and also Jiao and Fen. The symbol of Renminbi Yuan is RMB£¤.
The exchange from 1 Chinese Yuan to Malaysian Ringgit is RM 0.59
North East Asia
Across the Ocean
Main source of fuel is Coal.
Air is filled with black carbon particles (small enough to go deep into your lungs) and toxic chemicals from factories, cars, burning coal, etc
According to the Environmental Protection Agency's air quality scale, a rating of over 300 API (Air Pollution Index) is considered as unsafe to breathe.
There are days when China's API has exceeded 300 and readings over 500 are not unusual.
12th January 2013 - air quality reached a reading of 886 API, equivalent to living in a smoking lounge.
Approximately 1.2 million people die prematurely and 25 million years of ife lost every year due to respiratory and heart diseases
Estimated that living in a highly polluted city results in 3 years of your life expectancy gone and 1.6 years in a moderately polluted city.
Industrial villages surrounded by chemical plants and coal-fired power plants
Contaminated air, rivers and soil
High rates of cancer (lung, stomach, liver, kidney, colon etc.) and deaths
Rivers, which provides villagers with water, are filled with chemicals and heavy metals (cadmum, lead, mercury etc.) that are hazardous to human health.
Water would be purified before drinking but it's not good enough, still have traces of chemicals.
Air so toxic that villagers sleep with wet towels over their noses and mouth so they don't breathe it in.
Soil is polluted with metals, which is dangerous as their vegetables are planted in the contaminated soil. Will harm other citizens as well, as the vegetables will be transported and sold to other cities.
Almost every house will at least have someone dying of cancer or a respiratory problem
Reported 459 cancer villages among China's provinces
Lung cancer most deadly disease
Lung cancer increased by 465% over the past 30 years
25% of deaths in urban cities due to cancer
Just by living in these villages, you would already be at risk of cancer.
China is located in central Asia, and is home to well known landmarks such as the Great Wall of China, and house many different states.
They also have a very diverse history, consisting of many dynasties being formed and broken, and is also very well known for their inventions and incredible development. They are very well known for their food and speak the most commonly spoken language in the world, Mandarin.
However, China faces a lot of environmental problems, for example, air pollution and water pollution. If you live in a highly polluted area, your life expectancy decreases by 3 years, and if you live in a moderately polluted area, your life expectancy decreases by 1.6 years.
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Environmental Issues (air pollution, cancer villages, desertification, water pollution)
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Dams affect the natural flow of rivers. Wetlands are used for agriculture and construction, destroying habitats
Deforestation for agriculture, fuel and wood. Pandas largely affected
Out of all species listed as critically endangered, 1/4 come from China.
Hunting and poaching aren't being controlled.
stayed up really late to finish it
stayed up really late to finish it
Waste from factories and cities turn 70% of China's rivers into sewers
40% of the water in China's river systems has a quality index of 3 or worse
3 or worse means unfit for human consumption
Quality of major and urban lakes is also relatively poor
Many lakes suffering algal blooms.
Desertification is when land loses its minerals and becomes a desert.
Usually due to drought, deforestation and intensive farming.
Has affected 30% of China's land
Every year the desert increases as soil decreases
5 billion tonnes of soil lost due to erosion
Nutrients lost due to desertification equivalent to 40 million tonnes of natural fertilisers
China is next to many other countries, while being next to the sea, and they also have an abundance of natural resources. This causes China to have a higher GDP and value of exports, as they are able to sell these resources and products to other countries easily through the ocean, while keeping good political relations as well.
Tourism in China is affected by the environmental issues (e.g. air pollution, water pollution etc.), as the country is highly polluted. However, even though the country is polluted, you will still be able to see tourists in China due to China being full of interesting history and landmarks.
Also because of China's atrocious pollution, the life expectancy rate decreased, infant mortality rate and deaths increased. This is because the pollution is causing the citizens of China to become very unhealthy, leading them to having more diseases, which could lead to Deaths.
All of these parts contribute to China being a Newly Industriliased Country (NIC). However they are not a More Economically Developed Country (MEDC) because though they are very good economically wise, their environmental issues drag them down. As they end up spending their money on trying to solve these issues, rather than developing their country. Also they might be developing in the industry area but they are not developing their medical and environmental areas enough.
China's Next Move
In order for China to become a More Economically Developed Country (MEDC), China needs to improve on their environmental issues, which will then improve on their life expectancy and infant mortality rate. As when the environmental issues are improved, then the air, water and soil will not harm people's health any more, so more people would live longer and there would be less deaths, which results in a higher life expectancy rate and a lower infant mortality rate. The lack of pollution also means that more tourists will be attracted to come and visit China, which will then increase the tourism rate in China, bring in more money that can be used for development and thus also increase the GDP.
Therefore, China should focus on improving the environmental issues to become one step closer to becoming a MEDC.
HDI: 0.719 (2013)
Life expectancy: 75.2 years (2012)
Infant mortality: 14.79 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 14.93 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Literacy rate: 95.1% (2010)
People per doctor: 1.46/1,000 people (2010)