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Robert Lee

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Nicotine

Nicotine By Robert Lee So What Exactly is Nicotine? Nicotine is a highly addictive and poisonous alkaloid that is found in the nightshade family of plants and particularly in the tobacco plant. The compound known as nicotine is responsible for many of the effects of tobacco and cigarettes. Nicotine is known to be oily, yellow, having a pungent odour, and a bitter taste.The chemical equation for nicotine is C10H14N2. An image of nicotine in it's pure form. A Brief History of Nicotine The first known uses of nicotine is in the Americas as early as 6 000 BCE when it was used for medicinal uses or as a stimulant. There are even temple drawings from the Mayan temples in South America showing Mayan priests smoking nicotine and tobacco. It continued to be used in the Americas until it spread to Europe. There are many different theories to how tobacco arrived in Europe, but many people theorize that Christopher Colombus first encountered it and brought it back. The above picture is a temple carving from South America depicting Mayan priests smoking a tobacco pipe. Nicotine's spread in Europe By the 1600's, nicotine became one of the most important crops, especially in the new European colonies. People were smoking it thinking it was a cure for diseases like the Plague and others thought it caused diseases. In 1614, the first cigarette was made by a group of beggars in Seville, Spain. The beggars collected pieces of paper and rolled tobacco inside. This new invention spread quickly throughout Europe and its colonies. However cigarettes were expensive due to the time they took to individually make, until in the 1800's, a machine was patented that could roll cigarettes. This new machine made cigarettes much cheaper and easier to make. The above picture shows the first patented cigarette rolling machines Nicotine is dangerous...? In 1964, a study came out that cigarette smoking is related to lung cancer. Then in 1968, the US Surgeon General confirmed that smoking is the main reason for lung cancer. Since then, smoking has decreased drastically to about 20.8 per cent for Canadians aged 12 and over which is a huge improvement compared to about 49 per cent for Canadians over the age of 15 in 1960. There have been many laws put into place that bans nicotine and tobacco products in public areas. Uses of nicotine Nicotine is mainly used for cigarettes and other tobacco products. However it is also used in certain pharmaceutical products that are used to help people stop smoking. Other than that it is either used for skin products (due to it's skin tightening properties) or in insecticides (due to it's poisonous properties). Effects of nicotine People either feel relaxed or completely invigorated after smoking nicotine, depending on how much and how often they smoke. Nicotine has a very powerful effect on our brains and nervous system. Nicotine has three main effects in our bodies. First, it causes a burst of adrenaline which then in turn causes a rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure and a shallow breath. Second, it causes dopamine to be released which boosts pleasure and motivation. Lastly, it blocks insulin from being produced. This leads to smokers having more sugar in their system than usual. Dependence and withdrawal When an individual stops partaking in tobacco products, they will then face certain withdrawal symptoms like irritability, hunger, constipation, dizziness, coughs, cravings, fatigue, etc. All the above symptoms could last from a few days... to a few months or years. This makes quitting nicotine very difficult, only about 10% of smokers actually quit. Bibliography http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/res/news-nouvelles/nicotine-eng.php http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/res/news-nouvelles/nicotine-eng.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine http://gregoryblakesblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/639px-Side_effects_of_nicotine.svg_.png http://www.lung.ca/protect-protegez/tobacco-tabagisme/quitting-cesser/withdrawal-sevrage_e.php http://science.howstuffworks.com/nicotine1.htm http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/files/imagecache/feature/files/features/print/20081120_nicotine_0.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotinine http://www.primehealthchannel.com/how-long-does-nicotine-stay-in-your-system.html http://static.multipino.com/photoOffer/p/343503_p.jpg http://beconfused.com/media/2007/01/nicotine-is-a-very-powerful-insecticide.jpg Terminology: Nicotine is an alkaloid. An alkaloid is an organic compound that is mainly comprised of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Did you know... Nicotine takes less than 10 seconds after inhalation to reach your brain! Did you know...A smoker who inhales the smoke into his lungs gets about 90% of the nicotine in his/her bloodstream but a smoker who only lets the smoke enter his mouth gets only about 20-50 percent. Consequences of nicotine... Properties of nicotine Physical properties: Bitter, oily, yellow, brown when exposed to air, and it has a fishy, pungent odour. Chemical formula: C10H14N2. Melting point: -7.9 degrees C Boiling point: 247 degrees C Atomic molar mass: 162.234 g/mol State: Liquid Did you know... that nicotine is also in eggplants, tomatoes and potatoes! How does it work?
It starts off when nicotine is smoked and the chemical enters your alveoli sacs in the lungs. Cigarettes contain 8-20 milligrams of nicotine but only about 1 milligram is absorbed into your system. It flows through through your system and into your brain almost immediately. It wears off quickly, after about 6 hours, 0.031 mg of the 1 mg of nicotine is left. 80% of nicotine is broken down by enzymes into cotinine. Nicotine speeds up your brain and your nervous system. It releases dopamine which can make you happier and calm, while also feeling alert. As an individual continues to smoke, his/her brain gets used to that buzz from nicotine, and lowers your natural mood when an individual isn't smoking. A smoker then needs that boost to feel normal, which is how most drugs work in the end. Terminology: Tobacco is the plant that is used in cigarettes and chewing tobacco. It contains nicotine which is responsible for tobacco addiction and it's effects. In a tobacco plant's leaves, two to seven percent of it is nicotine. DON'T SMOKE. SMOKING IS BAD!!! THANKS FOR LISTENING!!! :D :D :D :D :D :D :D DON'T SMOKE!!! SMOKING IS BAD!!! :( Terminology: Cotinine is a alkaloid that comes from the metabolism of nicotine. It's chemical formula is C10H12N2O. It has a half life much longer than nicotine, while nicotine's is an hour, cotinine's half life is about 20 hours. When people go through tobacco tests, the test doesn't look for nicotine, it looks for cotinine due to it's longevity. It's molar mass is 176.22 g/mol.
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