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Transcript of Mexican Immigration
Mexico becomes independent
this picture is showing where mexican immigrant settle in the year 2000.
this picture shows where illegal immigrants settle in the U.S.A in the year 2008
this graph shows the number of mexican immigrants in the United States.
ven before the United States existed,
Mexicans were already living in the southwestern regions of North America.
During the 20th century many Mexicans
became citizens of the U.S. and even Today they seek more or less legal opportunities to migrate into the States. Thus, Mexican immigration plays an important role in both the public opinion and the legal system of the United States.
By law, matters of immigration swung back
and forth throughout the 20th century, either welcoming Mexican immigrants or preventing them from crossing the border.
Today, a significant portion of the U.S. population is of Mexican heritage and continues to influence the social an cultural landscape of the country.
Mexicans arrive in present-day New Mexico in 1598
In 1610 the city of
is founded in today's region of New Mexico .
War breaks out: The U.S. and Mexico fight over the area of Texas.
Mexico is defeated, and the two nations sign the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
In 1848, this treaty gave the U.S. an enormous amount of land.
They paid Mexico 15 million dollars for the territories of present-day
California, New Mexico Texas, Arizona
and parts of
Mexico lost approximately 55% of its territory because of the war.
Guatalupe Hidalgo Treaty
the U.S. buys what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico from the Mexican government.
With two strokes
the larger nation had expanded
its size by one-third.
of thousands of
of a pen,
Many mexicans flee to the U.S. because it has a strong economy.
Mexican immigration rates increase. Between 1910 and 1930, the number of Mexican immigrants tripled from 200,000 to 600,000.
Large-scale Mexican migration to the United States began in the early 20th century.
The political situation and the better job opportunities led hundreds of thousands of Mexicans to migrate into the United States.
Therefore, several reforms to the U.S. immigration system were necessary.
Those laws and restrictions played an important role in shaping the size and character of the Mexican immigration flows.
Four waves of migration
Immigration from Mexico to the United States has gone through
four main periods.
America needed workers, whereas Mexico had too many. Both countries arranged the
as a labor contract.
The Program allowed Mexicans to come to the U.S. as guest workers in agriculture.
4.6 million Mexicans came to the U.S. as Braceros between 1942 and 1964. After the program, some Braceros stayed in the U.S. and received legal status.
The Immigration Law is changed.
Numerical limits for eastern immigrants are set (170.000/year).
These limits did not include Mexico, so mexicans could migrate and get a visa.
The number of Mexican immigrants tripled, until the same limitations were set for Mexicans in 1976.
The IRCA (Immigration Reform and Control Act) is passed.
All illegal and undocumented immigrants were legalized and got visas.
The IRCA did set higher border security and penalities for Americans who gave work to illigal immigrants. Thus, it got more difficult for Mexicans to immigrate illegally.
This law actually increased illegal immigration and about 3 million illegal Mexican immigrants were legalized.
What are the reasons for Mexicans to immigrate to the USA today?
Many Mexicans from poor areas migrate to America. Most of them are men who move to America and then send money back to their families in Mexico.
Many of these immigrants enter the country illegally, which often requires them to cross a large desert or the river Rio Grande.
These journeys are dangerous and many immigrants have died, or nearly died, trying to cross into America through these routes.
There are so called
PUSH and PULL factors
that lead Mexicans to the dangerous illegal immigration.
PUSH & PULL FACTORS
high crime rates
in Mexico e.g. murder and drug related crimes. Mexicans leave for America, since it has lower crime rates.
Unemployment and poverty
has risen in recent years. Many Mexicans are farmers, living in rural areas where extreme temperatures and dry land make it difficult to actually farm. In America they find better paid jobs which help to support their families and have a better standard of living.
: Mexico suffers from water shortages and natural disasters including volcanoes, earthquakes, hurricanes & tsunamis. These force people to migrate if their homes have been destroyed.
Bad medical and educational facilities
make many Mexicans want to leave the country. Statistically in Mexico there are 1800 patients per 1 doctor.
make you want to leave your country
Quality of life
: Poverty is a major issue in Mexico. Mexico’s infrastructure is less developed than America’s. America offers better living standards and services, such as health care.
Existing Mexican communities make it easier for people to settle. Family members & friends who have already moved to the U.S. can help others to move. People are also enticed to move in order to be with their families.
Better paid work
: Mexico has a high rate of unemployment and jobs are not well paid. America has lots of free jobs for Mexicans where they can earn more than they would back home.
86.1% of the Mexicans can read & write versus 99% of the Americans. In Mexico most students finish school at the age of 14, versus 16 in America. Therefore Mexicans migrate to the U.S. for an improved education and better opportunities in their future.
Medical and Health care
: In comparison to Mexico, the U.S. has a better medical and health care system. A single doctor has only about 400 patients to take care off.
attract you to move to another country
Mexico looses land
Impacts of Immigration
Many Mexicans can’t speak fluent English and many of them don't get better whilst they live in the U.S. They often decide to live in
with other Mexicans, thus they don't need to adapt with American culture and language. This can, in turn, create tension between migrants and locals which can, in extreme cases, lead to segregation, crime and violence.
Immigrants likely increase crime rates in America. Low income & poor education are factors which can lead to crime. Since Mexico is known for its drug scene, there are concerns that migrants might be smuggling some into America.
American states with a large number of Mexican immigrants have improved in cultural aspects. Not only the Mexican food (Burritos, Tacos) became highly popular but also the music found its way into the American culture and made it more diverse.
Due to the high number of Mexican migrants who cannot speak English fluently, many American schools teach Spanish. Therefore the younger American generation is improving their skills and potential career opportunities.
Increase of the elderly generation:
Since many young people are leaving Mexico, the number of old Mexicans increases. This reduces both, the birth rate and the workforce in Mexico. Ans since there are less people working, there are less tax payments to support the elderly.
Although, Mexican migrants often take low paying jobs in America, they earn more than they would back in Mexico. In the past companies needed people to fill these jobs and were happy to employ the Mexicans, since the Americans didn't want them. But now as unemployment increases it is harder for Americans to find even a low paid job, since they are already taken by Mexicans. Americans believe that Mexicans take their jobs, which increases the social tension.
Mexican migrants often send the money they earn back to their families in Mexico, rather than spending it in America. The results are that on the one hand less money is spent in America, but on the other hand the amount of money sent back to Mexico is helping its economy to grow, since they now can invest in goods and pay for services.
: Since people leave Mexico, there is more land available, social and health services are more accessible and more jobs become available The problem, however, is that mainly young people leave Mexico, thus the skilled workforce of potential workers is gone and the available jobs and services might not be of use.
Mexico’s population mainly uses food grown in Mexico. Unfortunately, the majority of migrants are the ones living on farms with huge land. Once they migrate to the U.S. there are less Farmers in Mexico who can grow food. Therefore food shortages in Mexico are likely to occur more often.
According to Pew Research Center,
immigrants of Mexican origin resided in the United States in 2012.
of these immigrants were actually born in Mexico.
The other 22.3 million were born in the U.S. and identified themselves as Hispanics of Mexican origin.
Most Mexican immigrants settle in Califonia (~4.3m) and Texas (~2.5m).
Numbers and Statistics
Since 1980, Mexicans have been the largest immigrant group in the United States. As of 2013, approximately 11.6 million Mexican immigrants resided in the United States—up from 2.2 million in 1980
Mexican Immigrant Population in the United States, 1980-2013
In order to gain access to America, Mexicans must cross the “Unites States-Mexico Border”
It spans four US states & six Mexican states.
In America, it starts in California and ends in Texas.
San Diego, California
In the United States