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Chapter 2: Historical Foundations of SW in America

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Kristie Wilder

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Historical Foundations of SW in America

Chapter 2: Historical Foundations of SW in America

Historical Foundations of Social Welfare in America
Colonial Period

1690-1800

Elizabethan Poor Laws
The laws created structures that still exist

Economic support must come from family first, then local community
Person in need has to be a legal resident of the community
Belief that there is work for everyone, if you want to work
Social Welfare in Colonial America 1600-1800
The South
“Poor Laws” did not apply to slaves
Responsibility was with owners

Pre-Civil War Period
1800-1860
Economic shift in country from agrarian to industrial
Immigrants coming to U.S. settled in the urban area
Social welfare centered around a religious, moralistic perspective of correcting behavior

Civil War and Post War Period
1861- 1874
Federal government provided benefits for the first time - Freedman’s Bureau
Racial discrimination for both African American and Native Americans
Started consideration that poverty went beyond the individual

Elizabethan Poor Laws
1601 - The first public social welfare legislation, established in England
Established categories of need
>Worthy Poor - Widows, orphans, elderly, people with physical disability
>Unworthy Poor - Able bodied singles and unmarried women

Views of Colonial Period
America land of abundant resources
Native people and African slaves were regarded as nonpersons without rights
Room for growth and personal gain
Poverty seen as a personal misfortune, not a public responsibility

Pre-Civil War Period
1800-1860
Residential institutions became solutions for social problems such as mental illness, orphans, and disabled

Poverty was still viewed as individual’s fault

The North
Native people also had no rights
Poverty was seen as personal misfortune

The Progressive Era
1875-1925
Industrial Expansion
Growth in urban area with increase in poverty
Beginning of national involvement in social welfare
Roots of social work started in this era
The Progressive Era 1875-1925
Charity Organization Societies
Believed urban poverty was rooted in character deficiencies of the poor
Poverty could be abolished by helping people recognize their flaws
Advocated for coordination services
Created casework concept

Charity Organization Societies
Goals and Strategies:
To ensure that children did not grow up paupers
Aid in finding work for all who are able to work
Train in skill all who were deficient
Inspire new hope and self respect

The Progressive Era 1875-1925
Settlement Movement
Social Workers should live (settle) amongst the poor
Empowerment through community involvement
Encouraged organizations to gain political and social power

The Progressive Era
1875-1925
Fostered social workers involvement in:
Social welfare policy development
Group Work
Community Involvement
Hull House classic example

The Progressive Era: Key Events
Establishment of the National Women’s Suffrage Association -1890
The Supreme Court legitimized separate facilities for African Americans in Plessy V. Ferguson
19th Amendment to the Constitution granted women right in 1920.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION
Federal involvement in social welfare of U.S.

The Great Depression
1925-1940
Existing social welfare systems were unable to met the need
Public opinion changed as to cause of poverty
The New Deal was federal government’s response to social conditions
Started with FERA, CCC, and WPA

The Social Security Act of 1935
Compromise piece of legislation
Created Social Insurance and Public Assistance
Started state run programs for aged, dependent children, unemployed, vocational rehabilitation, infant and maternal health

Social Insurance
Intended for workers and their dependents at retirement, disability, or death
Social
– To provide for anyone as long as they have paid into the system
Insurance
– Guaranteed for rest of your life

Public Assistance
Intended as government assistance for those who fall below the poverty line
Public
– Funded through general revenue collected by government
Assistance
– Meant to be temporary and for people in distress

Post War Economy 1940-1960
Period of economic recovery
Federal government passed the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (AKA – GI Bill)
Added disability coverage to the Social Security Act

Social Reform
The 60’s
War on Poverty – 1964
Equal Opportunity Act
Head Start
VISTA
Job Corp
Food Stamp Program

Social Reform 1960
Civil Rights Act – 1964
Older Americans Act – 1965
Amended Social Security Act:
>Added Medicare
>And Medicaid

Renewed conservatism and retrenchment1970-1990
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act – CETA – 1973
Gain for women – NOW was formed
>Roe vs. Wade passed
Gay rights movement mobilized
Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Emergency Care

Move towards Liberalism & Neo-liberalism 1990-2000
American Disability Act – 1990
Civil Rights Restoration Act – 1993
Family Medical Leave Act – 1993
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act – 1996
>Replaced AFDC with TANF – Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

Economic Shifts of the 1990s
Proposed a universal health insurance program for all Americans
Passed Violence Against Women Act that include hand gun control
Proposed measures to prevent discrimination against gays/lesbians
The New Century
Medicare prescription drug benefits
Response to terrorism
War: fiscal and social impacts
Economic downturn
Significant economic intervention by the federal government – “bailouts”
Competing values –
>Tea Party
>Occupy Wall Street
Full transcript