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The Inca Empire

INCA
by

Legolas Greenleaf

on 2 March 2014

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Transcript of The Inca Empire

The Inca Empire
BIG THINK QUESTION
My BIG THINK QUESTION is:

Did the Incas impact modern Peru and, if so, how?
Table of Contents
Introduction
BIG THINK QUESTION
Location and size of the Inca Empire
The Kingdom of Cuzco
Machu Picchu
The Sapa Inca
Government
Crime and Punishment
Inventions
Army and weapons
Gods
Commoners
Medicine and Doctors
Food
Llamas, Alpacas, and Vicunas
Weaving and carving
Random facts
Spanish arrival
Timeline
Inca Impact Of Modern Peru
BIG THINK ANSWER
~
A Nic Production
☆☆☆☆☆

BIG THINK ANSWER
Location and size of the Inca Empire
Introduction
They lived along and on the Andes mountains in Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia, Columbia, and Argentina
Their Capital city was called Cuzco
The empire was 2,500 miles long, and about 500 miles wide
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2005/08/16/science/20050816_sci_INCA_map.html
This is a map of the Inca's reign
Kingdom of Cuzco
Thanks For Watching!
Cuzco was, and still is, in Peru
Cuzco was approximately 11,000 feet off the ground
In the middle of Cuzco was the temple of the sun
Most common people lived outside Cuzco
To get in and out of any city, people would have to go through a toll gate
Machu Picchu
The Sapa Inca
An ancient city located in the Andes mountains in Peru
Has 200 buildings made by the Incas out of perfectly carved stone without mortar
Over 7,000 feet above sea level
It was introduced to the world in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, who was led to the main plaza by a young Peruvian boy
Machu Picchu is one of the new 7 wonders of the world
The Sapa Inca was the title for the ruler of the Inca empire
Sapa Inca means "Only emperor" in Quechua, the Inca language
Lived in a palace
When one Sapa Inca died, the family would still live in the palace, but the next Sapa Inca would have to build a new one
http://inca.jouwweb.nl/upload/4/f/9/inca/images1.large.jpg
More on the Sapa Inca
The greatest Sapa Inca was named Pachacuti, but his son, Topa Yupanqui, conquered the most land out of all the Sapa Incas
Had many wives, but his main wife was usually his sister and their most worthy son became the next Sapa Inca
He only wore an outfit once
Government
The Inca government
was like a pyramid
4 Supreme councilors
Sapa
Inca
Officials
Tax collectors
Provincial governors
Workers
http://colleges.ac-rouen.fr/moquet/Site%20Espagnol%20Guy%20Moquet/Incas_intro_fichiers/inca03.gif
Crime and Punishment
Here is a list of crimes, and what your punishment would be if you committed
them
Crime Punishment
Murdered, cursed a god,
or insulted the Sapa Inca
Thrown off a cliff
Stealing or cheating
Hands and feet cut off
Other punishments were - Be stoned or tied to a wall to freeze.
If you survived your punishment, you would be the property of the government. You would have to sit by the city gates and tell passersby about your
crime. If they thought your story was interesting, they
would give you bits of food.
Inventions
http://incas.mrdonn.org/INCA05.gif
The Incas invented...
Pan flutes
Freeze dried foods, which they made by by using the sun to dry the food, stamping on it to get the moisture out, freezing it, and adding water when they wanted to eat it
An accurate calender
Quipus (A system of measurement that uses strings)
Terrace farming (A farming technique that the Incas did by cutting flat spots on a mountain to make it easier to farm)
They did NOT invent or create
The wheel
A system of writing
Army and Weapons
Conquered many tribes
Very well organized
Warriors had colorful uniforms and were joined by musicians while going to battle
The army got bigger because some tribes joined the Incas rather than being defeated
Some of their weapons were wooden clubs, bow and arrows, spears, and a bolasses, which was a rope with a rock at three ends
This is an example of a bolasses
Gods
Gods in the Inca Empire were mostly gods of nature
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Boleadoras.gif/170px-Boleadoras.gif

There were gods of Rainbows, Stars, Thunder, Moon, Mountain tops, the Sun, and Planets
The Incas believed that the gods were on their side in battle
Incas believed the Sapa Inca was a descendent of Inti, the Sun god
Commoners
Commoners lived in groups of 10 to 20 people called an ayllu
They could not own a business
Most common people were farmers
Some were weavers
Some were artists
Very rarely did a commoner become a government official
http://www.machupicchu-inca.com/images/Inca-God-Virachocha.jpg
Medicine and doctors
The Incas had brain surgeons, which is pretty advanced for the 1400's
The Incas, and people living in the Andes today, chewed on the coca plant to cure tiredness and hunger
http://www.altoona.psu.edu/academics/www/mns/plants/foto_40.jpg
Food
Squash
Beans
Lots and lots of corn!
Approximately 200 types of potatoes
Rabbits
Deer
Birds
Guinea pigs
Llamas
Alpacas
Tomatoes
Avocados
Peppers
Strawberries
Peanuts
Bananas
Soup
http://www.business-standard.com/newsimgfiles/image/maize.gif
Chocolate from cocoa leaves
Cereal from Quinoa seeds
Bread
Chili peppers
Chicha, a thick beer made from fermented corn
Llamas, Alpacas, and
Vicunas
~
Incas used llamas and alpacas for food, wool, and transportation. Vicunas, however, could only be used as wool for the royal family
A lot of Inca legends and myths were about llamas
They all live in mountains
Alpacas have finer wool then llamas, but not as fine as vicunas
~
~
Weaving and carving
Weaving was a very popular thing for women to do in the Inca Empire
Most wool used for weaving was from alpacas
Incas were expert carvers
They carved amazing things out of gold and stone
http://www.ganderhill.com/LlamaPictures/llamasWizardPic1.JPG
http://www.photo-dictionary.com/photofiles/list/3175/4227Incan_weaving.jpg
Spanish Arrival
~
The leader of the Spanish was named Francisco Pizarro
Pizarro brought only 167 men, but still won against thousands of Incas
The Spanish won because the Sapa Inca, Atahualpa, just won a war and he felt victorious and granted the Spanish safe passage
While Atahualpa went back to Cuzco, Pizarro attacked him and killed 1,000 unarmed priests
The Spanish got a ransom for Atahualpa, but killed him anyways
The Spanish then attacked the Incas and stole the rest of their gold
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Spanish_Conqueror_Helmet.jpg
Random facts!
There were 12 million people in the Inca Empire
No Incas were starved or homeless
Whenever there was a natural disaster, the government always helped
The Incas were master builders
They didn't have horses or carts
Almost everything we know about the Incas is based on archeology and the Spanish
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-O-GIplcV1cc/TlfuQMywdKI/AAAAAAAAAHk/a_Sc8dnibvU/s1600/macchu-picchu_98348a.jpg
Timeline
1,200 A.D. - In legend, the first Sapa Inca,
Manco Capac
, builds his capital city in Cuzco.
1438 A.D. -
Pachucuti
starts widening the Inca empire.
1476 A.D. - The Incas defeat the Chimu tribe.
1491 A.D. -
Huayna Capac
is appointed Sapa Inca.
1525 A.D. -
Huayna Capac
dies.
1532 A.D. -
Atahualpa
defeats
Huascar
, his half brother in a war to see who would become Sapa Inca. Both these men are sons of
Huayna Capac
.
Atahualpa
becomes Sapa Inca. In the same year, the Spanish capture.
Atahualpa
and get a ransom, but still don't return him.
1533 A.D. -
Atahualpa
is killed by the Spanish, and they take over.
Francisco Pizarro
makes
Manco Inca
the Sapa Inca.
'
1537 A.D. -
Manco Inca
escapes and makes a self-relying Inca State in Vilcabamba, Peru.
1572 A.D. -
Manco Inca's
son,
Tupac Inca
, becomes Sapa Inca. In the same year, the Spanish capture and execute him.
Inca Impact Of Modern Peru
People in Peru still speak the Inca language, Quechua
People living in the Andes today use Terrace Farming
Cuzco is still an amazing city today
Modern Peruvians still use Llamas the same way Incas did
Decedents of the Incas still live in Peru to this day
People in Peru today still use medicine techniques the Incas used
But.....
Although the Inca Empire was very well organized, Modern Peru has an up and down economy.
The Inca Empire ends
My BIG THINK QUESTION was:
Did the Incas impact modern Peru and, if so, how?
My BIG THINK ANSWER is:
Yes, because.....
A) Modern Peru still uses Inca inventions
B) People in western South America still speak Quechua
C) People in Peru still use Terrace Farming
D) People live in the Inca made city of Cuzco
Well, that concludes this project,
So.....

The Incas were an amazing tribe that dominated most of Western South America from approximately the 1200's to 1572. This project is about how this great civilization impacted Peru.
A Nic Production
☆☆☆☆☆
Full transcript