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Tissue Engineering the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

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Kyle Holden

on 17 April 2011

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Transcript of Tissue Engineering the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Tissue Engineering the Anterior Cruciate Ligament The Knee Composed of 4 Ligaments
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ACL Anatomy ACL Stabilizes Knee & Prevents
Abnormal types of motion
Anterior translation of femur
Forward sliding & rotation of tibia
ACL Injury
Over 200,000 ACL reconstructions performed annually
$5 billion industry Composed of 2 Bands:
Anteromedial Band
Posterolateral Band Anteromedial Band
Tightens during flexion and extension of the knee Posterolateral Band
Tightens during extension
Relaxes during flexion Composition The ACL is composed of dense, highly organized, parallel strands of connective tissue Connective Tissue:
Types I, III, & IV collagen
Cells Dimensions
27-32 mm in length
44.4-57.5 mm^2 cross-sectional area Collagen Fibroblast
Enzymatically breakdown old collagen molecules
Synthesize new collagen Assembly Microfibrils Subfibrils Fibrils Subfascicular Unit
Surrounded by endotenon Fasciculus
3-20 Subfascicular units
Surrounded by paratenon Fascicles form ligament
Spiral around or
Directly attached to femur/tibia Mechanics Daily Forces
67 N (ascending stairs)
630 N (jogging) The ACL acts in tension, much like the cables on a suspension bridge Twisted 180 degrees from femoral to tibial attachment Load
Ultimate tensile stress ~ 70MPa
Ultimate tensile load ~ 2000 N Stiffness
129-182 N/mm Strain before failure
0.12-0.15 Young's Modulus
111 MPa ACL Repair Traditional Grafts
Allograft Synthetic
LARS Biomaterials
Silk Fibroin
Poly-lactic acid
Poly-glycolic acid Design
Full transcript