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Mitosis

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Jeff Nichols

on 29 November 2016

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Transcript of Mitosis

Cell Division
Review: Connecting the UNITS 1-5
1. What does it mean
to be alive
?
a. 8 essential life functions
i.
DNA & Cells
2.
Cell Organelles
a.
Nucleus (contains DNA)
3. Bioenergetics
a. how cells produce energy
4. DNA Structure & Protein Synthesis
a. The parts of DNA
b. How DNA replicates using complementary bases.
i. WHY DNA replicates!
Cell Division
The Results of Cell Division and Mitosis
1. Begins with 1 cell.
2. Ends with 2 identical diploid daughter cells.
Diploid: Cells that contain 2 copies of each chromosome. A full set (2n) of genetic information (DNA)

Somatic: A body cell. They are diploid
What is the purpose of Mitosis?
1. Mitosis makes new cells so your body can grow.
2. Mitosis makes new cells to replace used or worn out cells
What does mitosis have to do with me?
1. Unregulated mitosis is cancer
2. Mitosis that stops to early causes advanced aging or disease. Ex. Progeria, anaecephaly.
http://www.progeriaresearch.org/about_progeria/
3. Mitosis helps the body repair and heal
4. Mitosis is how we grow
Many diseases or conditions are related to problems with cell division.
Parkinson's Disease Alzheimers Disease
Diabetes Heart Disease
Cancer Spinal Cord Injury
Strokes MS, ALS, ALD
Blindness Aging
Liver Cirrohosis Progeria
Stem Cells and Cell Division
Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can become any type of cell. They can also go through mitosis very quickly and indefinitely.
Cell Division
1. Understand the importance of cellular division to living organisms.

2. Know the phases of Mitosis and what is occurring at each stage.
This mutation changes a single DNA building block (nucleotide) in the gene. Specifically, the mutation replaces the nucleotide cytosine with the nucleotide thymine at position 1824 (written as C1824T)
The Cell Cycle
The Parts of the Cell Cycle.
I. Interphase
G1, S, and G2
II. Mitosis
1. Prophase, 2.Metaphase,
3. Anaphase, 4.Telophase
III. Cytokinesis
The two main parts of the Cell Cycle

1. Interphase: When the cell is carrying out its normal cellular functions, and chromosomes are replicated.

2. Mitosis: When nuclear division occurs and the cells splits.
The Stages of Mitosis
1.Prophase 2.Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4.Telophase
The Structure of a Chromosome
Prophase
1.Chromatin supercoils to form chromosomes
2.Nuclear membrane dissolves
3.Centrioles move to sides of the cell
4.Spindle Fibers begin to form
Metaphase
1. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
2. Spindle fibers attach to the centromere.
Anaphase
1. Spindle fibers attached to centromeres pull sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell

Telophase
1. Chromosomes are on opposite sides of the cell
2. Nuclear envelope begins to form
3. Chromosomes begin to unwind
Cytokinesis
1. Cleavage furrow separates cells
2. The cell reenters interphase
Duration of the cell cycle.
Average Cell Division: 24 hrs
Interphase: 22 hrs
Mitosis: 2 hrs
Cell Division Drawing
1. Interphase
2. Prophase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. TeloPhase
6. Cytokinesis
Follow 6 Chromosomes through the processes. Each Chromosome is a different color. Label each Phase. Idenify Sister Chromatids, Chromsomes, Centrioles, and spindle fibers (Label in the stage they appear.
Full transcript