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Livestock Digestive System

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by

Rachel Longan

on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of Livestock Digestive System

Livestock Digestive System
Ruminant Animals
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
Non-Ruminant Animals
Swine
Humans
Modified Ruminant Animals
Horses
Rabbits
Poultry (Ducks, Chickens, Turkeys)
Fun Fact
The digestive tract in a human from mouth to anus is 30 feet in length

The digestive tract in swine is about 80 feet in length. This added length permits some absorption in the large intestine, while little or no absorption occurs in the large intestines of humans
Ruminant
A ruminant animal has a four-compartment stomach, where each compartment serves a different function in the digestion of roughage.
Mouth
Three Physical Processes Occur in the Mouth
Prehension: the act of bringing food into the mouth

Mastication: the act of chewing food (Saliva is added and enzymatic digestion begins)

Deglutition- the act of swalloing
Esophagus
Note: Same function for all classes of livestock
Pharynx- structure for all classes of livestock

The passageway for food and water from mouth to stomach
Reticulum and rumen
Microorganisms (bacteria and protozoa) are present to aid in digestion

Fatty acids are produced and absorbed

Vitamins K, C, and B-complex are synthesized

Muscular action stirs and mixes food and water, which aids in digestion
Omasum
Absorbs water

Aids in grinding food

Absorbs volatile fatty acids
Abomasum
This is considered the "true stomach" in ruminants

Digestive juices containing acids and enzymes are added, which increase the moisture content of food

A small percentage of feed protein (the hard-to-digest part) is digested here
Pancreas
Note: Same functions as non-ruminants, modified non-ruminants, and poultry
Endocrine glad secretes hormones such as insulin and glucagon.

Exocrine glad secretes fluid necessary for digestion
Liver
Note: Same functions as non-ruminant and modified non-ruminant
Secretion of bile, which emulsifies fat

Vitamin storage

Detoxification of harmful compounds

Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids (fats)

Storage of carbohydrates when needed

Destruction of red blood cells

Urea formation

Formation of plasma proteins

Inactivation of polypeptide hormones
Gallbladder
Note: Same functions as non-ruminants and poultry
Stores bile
Duodenum
Bile and pancreatic fluid are stored here

Fats are emulsified here

Enzymes in the pancreas aid in breaking down carbohydrates and proteins
Small Intestine
Vitamins and minerals are absorbed into the bloodstream

Proteins (80%) are absorbed here

Lipids (fats) are also absorbed here
Cecum and colon
Fiber (5-15%) is digested in the cecum

The majority of water is absorbed in the colon, which causes fecal formation

Mucus is added to feces for lubrication

The mixture still remains nuetral
Note: Same functions as non-ruminants and modified non-ruminants
Non-Ruminant
Has one stomach, which cannot digest roughage
Stomach
Food is mixed with acids and enzymes; this mixture becomes acidic in nature

Fats are partially broken down

Digestions begins on proteins

Carbohydrates move through the stomach at a faster rate than other nutrients
Duodenum
Food mixture becomes a neutral mixture with addition of alkaline enzymes

Emulsification of fats by bile makes fats soluble in water

Further breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates occurs
Small Intestine
Digested nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream

Peristalsis is the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles to create unidirectional movement of food
Cecum and colon
The cecum has a very limited function but does contain microorganisms.

Water is absorbed in the colon; fecal formation occurs

Mucus is added to feces to provide lubrication

The mixture remains neutral
Modified non-Ruminant
Only 2 differences between non-ruminants and modified non-ruminants is an active cecum in the modified non-ruminant and the modified non-ruminant does not have a gallbladder
Cecum
Quite functional and much larger than most non-ruminant animals

Digestion of roughage takes place here

Contains microorganisms to aid in digestion of roughage
Poultry Digestive System
Considerably different than those of the 3 groups discussed so far
Mouth
2 physical process occur in the mouth

Prehension: the act of bringing food into the mouth

Degluition: the act of swallowing
Crop
Storage of food

Mucus is secreted and added to the food, which softens and lubricates it
Proventriculus
Gastric fluids are secreted and added to ingested food
Gizzard
This muscular organ aids in digestion by mechanically mixing and grinding food

Gastric fluids are mixed with food

Liver
Secretion of bile
Vitamin storage
Detoxification of harmful compounds
Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
Storage of carbohydrates
Destruction of red blood cells
Formation of plasma proteins
Inactivation of polypeptide hormones
Small Intestine Movements
Pendular Motion: shortening and lengthening of the intestine to create a mixing motion

Segmentation Contractions: ringlike contractions at regular intervals create a mixing motion

Peristalsis: the coordinated contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles create unidirectional movement of food

Digested nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
Large Intestines
stores undigested waste material and absorbs water from the material.
Ceca
Ceca is the plural form of cecum

Two blind-ended tubes found at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine

Contains microorganisms capable of breaking down fibrous material that live in the ceca.

Not a major part of the modern birds digestion
Colon
Does not play a significant role in digestion, except for water absorption
Cloaca
Urinary and fecal materials are mixed together before leaving the body through the vent
Full transcript