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Knowledge as JTB

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Jingping Cao

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of Knowledge as JTB

Could
Knowledge
be defined as
Justified True Belief
?

I
When can you say that

"I know ..."
Content
I. Introduction

II. Justified True Belief theory's content

III. Arguments from Gettier

IV. Nozick's response

V. More questions

VI. Conclusion
In order to know that a given proposition is true, one must not only believe the relevant true proposition, but one must also have justification for doing so.

In more formal terms, a subject S knows that a proposition P is true if and only if:
1) P is true
2) S believes that P is true, and
3) S is justified in believing that P is true

Do you really know something
that you
THINK
you know?

Who would judge that?
subjunctive account
Robert Nozick
Edmund Gettier
"Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"
Plato
Justified True Belief
Justified True Belief
Responses
Fourth condition (JTB+G) approaches


Revisions of JTB approaches


Attempts to dissolve the problem


Experimental research

Conclusion
More Questions
Counterexample

What is knowledge?
?
……
(BC427- BC347)
Today, Mike must be absent for ENL 213.
Today, Mike must be absent for ENL 213.
(born 1927 in Baltimore, Maryland )
(in 1963)
Gettier Problem
Any one of a category of
thought experiments
in contemporary epistemology
that seem to repudiate
a definition of knowledge
as justified true belief (JTB)
Case II
Jones
Brown
Or
Smith
(November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002)
(in 1981)
Proposition P is an instance of knowledge when:

1) p is true

2) S believes that p

3) if p were true, S would believe that p

4) if p weren't true, S wouldn't believe that p
Jones
Brown
Or
Honest!
Reliable!
Jones
!@^##$
%&*%
Brown
Brown
Proposition P is an instance of knowledge when:

1) p is true

2) S believes that p

3) if p were true, S would believe that p

4) if p weren't true, S wouldn't believe that p
JTB theory is
not perfect
definition for knowledge.
But, it's a
good
one!
Sources
Mario Alai:“Subjective and Objective Justification in the Solution of Gettier’s Problem”, in Selected Proceedings of the SILFS 2010 International Congress, edited by S.R. Arpaia, L&PS - Logic and Philosophy of Science, IX, 1, 2011, pp. 493-501, online: http://www2.units.it/episteme/L&PS_Vol9No1/L&PS_Vol9No1_2011_48_Alai.pdf.
Fred Dretske: "Conclusive Reasons" in Australasian Journal of Philosophy v. 49 (1971), pp. 1–22.
Floridi, Luciano (2004). "On the Logical Unsolvability of the Gettier Problem". Synthese 142 (1): 61–79.
Gettier, Edmund L. (1963). "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?". Analysis 23: 121–123. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
Alvin Goldman: "A Causal Theory of Knowing" in The Journal of Philosophy v. 64 (1967), pp. 357–372.
Richard Kirkham, "Does the Gettier Problem Rest on a Mistake?" Mind, 93, 1984.
Lehrer, Keith; Paxson, Thomas, Jr. (24 April 1969). "Knowledge: Undefeated Justified True Belief". The Journal of Philosophy (Journal of Philosophy, Inc.) 66 (8): 225–237. ISSN 0022-362X. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
Robert Nozick: Philosophical Explanations. Harvard University Press. 1981.
Marshall Swain: "Epistemic Defeasibility", American Philosophical Quarterly, v. II n. 1 (January 1974).
^ Fine, G., "Introduction" in Plato on Knowledge and Forms: Selected Essays (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 5.
Jump up ^ Chisholm, Roderick (1982). "Knowledge as Justified True Belief". The Foundations of Knowing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1103-3.
By Jingping Cao
Justified
Justified
Smith
Earth is round
theory can apply on everything
NO
No matter how well a theory can apply in reality,
there always exists some exceptions.

For JTB theory, the understanding based on language limits its application.

However, most cases around us fits the theory well. That weights more than one or two outliers.
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