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2. For each unknown, take note of the code # written on the bottle of each unknown liquid.
3. For the unknowns (repeat these steps accordingly):
a. Add APPROXIMATELY 2 mL of unknown liquid to your 10-mL graduated cylinder (volume is constant for all liquids)
b. Carefully read the volume of the first unknown at eye- level and at the lower meniscus and record the actual volume
c. Get the mass of the graduated cylinder +liquid
d. Label the test tube once you’ve transferred the liquid
e. Clean and dry the graduated cylinder and repeat the process
4. Calculate the density using the formula while using the correct number of significant figures.
5. Determine the order using the Densities of the liquids. Least dense will be on the topmost and most dense will be at the very bottom. Keywords Density
Physical property that allows us to determine whether a liquid will sink or not
The denser the liquid, the more it will sink to the bottom.
Density= Mass/ Volume
Property of solubility and ability to mix with other liquids.
Liquids are able to mix in all proportions and form a solution
Measure of how much matter is in an object
Measured using the Triple Beam Balance or electronic apparatuses
Quantity of three-dimensional space occupied by a liquid, solid, or gas
Common units: liters, cubic meters, gallons, milliliters, teaspoons and ounces Introduction
This was our first ever experiment in chem lab. In this experiment, we measured for the mass and volume of each liquid in order to determine its density. We were then able to figure out how the liquids will layer with each other depending on their densities. Checking for Solubility 1. Make sure that the liquids will not mix by checking their solubility in each other. The solubility or polarity may also be checked in another simpler way. Think about it.
2. Note down your observations below including other important propoerties of the liquids such as physical appearance, viscosity (a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow, describing a liquid’s internal friction), etc.
3. Plan how you will order the liquids inside the test tube varying depending on the density and properties of the liquids
4. Write it down and once approved, do it (pour 1 mL of the liquid and so on)
5. Show instructor. Results and Discussion Questions Coronel, Ong, Santos, Syyap, Tarog Layering of Liquids Layering of liquids can be used in so many ways in life especially due to the fact that it helps determine how dense an object is.
Density is an important consideration in many professions such as engineering as to start any design process, the amount of space that should be alloted and the weight needed should be considered, and to be able to determine these, density is needed. In constructing ships and aircrafts, and even pipe systems all require the use of density. Engineers need to know the density of the fluid that needs to be moved through pipes from one point to another. Why? Because denser fluids are harder to move and will need more powerful pumps; less dense fluids, less powerful pumps.
Materials Graduated Cylinder 10 mL
Electronic mass aparatus
Unknown liquids 1. Do you need to test the solubility of all the liquids in each other? What can be the other easier way to test the solubility of the liquids? 2. How would you go about planning for seven layers of liquid? 3. If you use 3 mL of each liquid, would it affect the layers of the liquid? 5. What are the possible sources of errors inherent to the experiment? There is a need to test the solubility of all the liquids in each other for accuracy. This is to ensure that the liquids won’t mix when the layering is done. The easier way to test the solubility of the liquids is to mix it with water to identify if it’s polar or non-polar and since we know that polar mixes with polar then we can identify it. We can also check the polarities of the liquids by mixing some of them with each other. If A is soluble with C and not with B, then B isn't soluble with C either. Liquids with the same polarity are miscible with one another. If i have a lot of time, I will mix it with each other to see which liquids mix with another but if I didn’t, then i will have to check the density and arrange it from biggest to least and put it in the same order just like in the experiment. No, because the volume of the liquid still remains constant. Since the layers of the liquid is affected by the density, increasing the amount to 3 mL will decrease the density at a fixed ratio. When the layered liquids are shaken, the liquids that are soluble with one another will mix, forming bubbles and air pockets. After some time, the liquids will revert back to their original layering. Human error is possible especially when measuring the volume of the liquids. There may be chances that the volume may not be as consistent so it changes the values of the measurements. Another source of error would be the wrong calibration of the measuring device such as the tap loading balance. Sometimes, it gives wrong or not so precise measurements of the mass. GAME
TIME 4. What happens if you shake the layered liquids vigorously? Explain. Trials #1 #2 Final HOT WATER When water is heated, the water molecules gain energy
The spaces between the water molecules increase, therefore increasing the volume
This rapid movement causes expansion of the water: the same mass over a greater volume will lead to density decrease TIP OF THE ICEBERG
Water expands when it is frozen
The volume increases, without changing its mass, causing the density of ice (0.5g/mL) to be lower than the density of liquid water (1g/mL)
Since the densities of the liquids are relatively close to each other, a part of the iceberg is submerged in the water.
This was observed when the infamous Titanic sank. The submerged part of the iceberg was actually the portion that hit the Titanic, causing it to sink. GOLD VS. LEAD Lead was commonly used as a gold substitute by jewelry counterfeiters.
By weighing this piece of solid and dropping it in a beaker filled with water, the density can easily be attained.
This information is then compared to the density of gold, which is 19 g/mL. Lead, on the other hand, has a density of about 11 g/mL. Because of this knowledge, the substance of the piece of solid is easily identified. LAVA LAMPS Consists of two liquids which are relatively close in density and are insoluble in one another.
When these two liquids are contained inside, heat is applied by the bulb located at the bottom of the lamp. The heavier liquid absorbs the heat and eventually expands. As it expands, it becomes less dense. Since the difference between the densities of the two liquids decreases, the formerly heavier liquid becomes suddenly lighter than the other liquid, so it rises. As it rises, it cools, making it denser and heavier, so it sinks again. density miscibility CHEMISTRY THEORY Layer the liquids from bottom to top, first one to raise their hands and get the correct answer wins the prize.
Note: We used Hypothetical Liquids
Constant volume of 5 mL CONCLUSION CHEMISTRY!