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The Formation Of The Universe

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Jess Rogers

on 26 June 2013

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Transcript of The Formation Of The Universe

The Formation of the Universe
What Is The Big Bang Theory?
The Big Bang Theory is a way in which scientists have attempted to explain how the universe came to be through discoveries in astronomy and physics. According to this theory, our universe came into existence as "singularity" around 13.7 billion years ago. Singularities are areas that challenge our current understandings of physics which are thought to exist at the core of “black holes”. Black holes are areas of intense gravitational pressure that compress matter into states of immeasurable density. Our universe is thought to have begun as an immensely small and hot dense singularity which over billions of years has expanded and cooled, going from immensely small and hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe in which we live in today. It is believed by many that our universe is still continuing to expand and cool everyday day which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown.

What Evidence Is There To Support The Big Bang Theory?
The evidence that we have to support the big bang theory is that experts are realistically certain that the universe had a beginning through their major discoveries over the years in the areas of physics and astronomy. Also, there is proof that there are galaxies that appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance (Hubble’s Law), which supports observations being made about the expansion of the universe, in that it was once compacted before its expansion. As well as this, research suggests that if the universe was initially as hot and dense as the Big Bang Theory proposes, then we should be able to find some remnant of its heat. Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were the ones who discovered this cooled remnant of the big bang in 1965 which was -270.425oc, filling the entire universe to be observed today (Cosmic Microwave Background).
What Are The Common Misconceptions About The Big Bang Theory?
There are many misconceptions surrounding the Big Bang theory, one being that we tend to imagine it as a giant explosion. However experts say that there was no explosion and that there was, and continues to be, an expansion. The reasoning behind this image of an explosion comes from the use of the word “bang” in the name of the theory, and the key aspect of the Big Bang Theory in that first there was nothing and then all of a sudden there was the universe. Another common misconception is that the singularity, from which our universe is believed to have formed from, is portrayed as being a little ball of fire that just appeared in space. However experts believe that space didn't exist prior to the Big Bang as space, time, matter or and energy all came after the expansion of the singularity. This is why one of the objectives of many scientists have been to decipher whether the Universe will expand forever, or whether it will someday stop and collapse.
By: Jess Rogers
What Is The Steady State Theory?
The steady-state theory is a theory that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density as matter is continuously being created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and velocity of recession. Hence maintaining an equal density. The Steady State theory offered simple solutions as to the way the universe worked. It basically meant that the universe has no beginning or end in time and from any point within it the view on the grand scale will remain the same. Galaxies of all possible ages are intermingled.

The theory was first put forward by Sir James Jeans in 1920 and was then revised in 1948 by Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold before being further developed by Sir Fred Hoyle. As observatories have become able to look further back into the early eras of the universe, astronomers started to see contradictions to the theory which began to emerge in the late 1960’s. Astronomers found that the universe actually evolves over time, like the discovery of quasars and radio galaxies being found. With the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background which was predicted by the Big Bang Theory, the Steady State Theory could offer no convincing explanation in its defence and has since become an unrealistic explanation of how the universe was formed by experts.

Who Was Edwin Hubble? What Was His Discovery Of The Expanding Universe? How Did He Use ‘Red Shift’ In His Discovery?
Edwin Hubble was an American Astronomer born on November 20, 1899 and died on September 28, 1953 who was most famously known for revolutionizing our view of the universe. The significance of Hubble’s discovery was that there had been a whole new perspective put on the universe as before, everyone believed that the universe was composed of one vast island of stars, the Milky Way. In 1929, Hubble was able to present evidence for the universe expanding after finding that galaxies are moving away so quickly, their light waves are being stretched out which was making them appear redder or have a higher “red shift”. In doing so he was able to show that galaxies and stars in space that were dimmer because of their light waves being so spread out, were farther away from us and had a larger redshift. He was also able to then calculate that galaxies were possibly speeding away from us at speeds of up to thousands of miles per second.

From his discoveries, Hubble's Law was formed which stated that redshifts increase in proportion to their distance from us. To understand this relationship between the two, Hubble invented a constant, known as Hubble's Constant which is equal to the speed of a receding galaxy divided by the distance to it. However this number is extremely difficult to measure, but is very important because it gives astronomers a valuable and relatively easy to use way of measuring distances of galaxies in the far-away universe. As well, this number would be able to tell us how old the universe is.

The History of Lutetium
Technetium: Hey Lutetium, I’ve always wondered, where was your family heritage is based?
Lutetium: Well, my great-great grandmother was the mineral Gadolinite and she was born in a quarry near the town of Ytterby in Sweden. In 1843 her husband, a Swedish chemist named Carl Gustaf Mosander, assisted her in giving birth to three separate materials which each took on a separate set of genes from our great-great grandmother. She named her three children with the help of Mosander, Yttria, Erbia and Terbia. Considering the similarities between their names and properties, other scientists who knew my great-great grandmother children soon grew confused between her daughters Erbia and Terbia and by 1877 they ended up reversing their names just to stop the confusion. In 1878 a Swiss chemist named Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac married by great grandmother Erbia and soon after discovered that she was expecting twins! Not long after, she gave birth to two components named Ytterbia and Erbia. When granny Ytterbia found out that her baby would be a compound for a new element, she decided to call my mother Ytterbium after herself. Chemists experimented with mum, in an attempt to determine some of her properties but a French chemist named Georges Urbain, believed that the reason her properties could not be determined was because her children were going to be conjoined twins, with each of us taking on one of mum’s elements if we were separated immediately after birth. So when we were born in 1907, Urbain was able to separate us and my mother originally named my sister Neoytterbium and me Lutecium. However a few years later Neoytterbium changed her name to Ytterbium and I changed mine to Lutetium. Technetium: Wow, that’s really cool how your family has been so into science for all these years! Do you reckon you’ll head down the same path or are you leaning towards something else?
Lutetium: Well nowadays I don’t really have any practical uses, aside from some of my radioactive isotopes which can be used as a catalyst in the cracking of petroleum products and as a catalyst in some hydrogenation and polymerization processes.
Technetium: Oh well that’s still pretty cool, I’ll have to catch up with you again sometime and hear more about your interesting history. It was great talking to you but I really have to go now, see ya!

How Lutetium Was Formed

What Is Gravity And What Role Does It Have In The Formation Of Galaxies and Stars?
Gravity is a force of attraction that exists between any two masses, bodies or any two particles that exists between all objects, everywhere in the universe. This has a larger scale effect on the universe gravity arranging celestial forms into orbits and causing drifting space particles to become pulled together slowly through the strong gravitational pulls into bigger and bigger clumps that eventually become planets, stars and galaxies. The strong gravitational force of the core of the star then starts to pull the outer layers of the star towards the center which produces fusion (by particles getting bumped into each-other), which produces the light we see from a star. In the 1600s, Isaac Newton defined gravity as a universal force acting on all matter and according to his theory, the exact expression of gravity came down to mass and distance meaning that collections of particles with a greater or lesser mass result in having greater or lesser gravity. However in the 1900’s Albert Einstein argued that gravity was far more than just a force, but a curve in the fourth dimension of space and time and that given a sufficient mass, an object could cause an otherwise straight beam of light to curve which became known as gravitational lensing (one of the primary methods in detecting unobservable black holes). He also argued that the less gravity there is, and hence a lower mass, the faster time passes which is known as gravitational time dilation.
How Do Scientists Explain How The Solar System Was Formed?
The most widely accepted theory that scientists believe is how the solar system was formed is known as the nebular theory. Astronomers and physicists believe that the solar system originally started out as a large, shapeless cloud of gas, dust and ice. However, there was something that disrupted the mass of the cloud like the explosion of a nearby star which set things into motion. With the impact of the explosion, the unformed gas and dust were thrust closer together, hence making their mass more concentrated. The concentrated mass of dust and gases began to then spin faster and faster in a circle due to the high concentration of the particles needing to move away from one another. As the sun began to form in the middle of the cloud, it started to flatten out into a disc. Eventually, the dust still circulating around the newly formed sun began to stick together and form larger masses of particles that had become stuck together called planetesimals. With the formation of planetesimals, even more of the matter circulating around collided with these planetesimals and stuck to them in a process called accretion. As the planetesimals continued to spin, gravity brought more dust and gas which then also stuck to the planetesimals which accreted into protoplanets. These protoplanets have since become the eight planets that we currently know exist in our solar system which are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

What Is ALMA? What Can It Tell Us About The Universe? What Is Meant By The Statement: ‘ALMA Does Not Use Optical Images’?
ALMA (Atacama Large Millimetre Array) is the world’s most powerful telescope that has been installed in the harsh conditions of the Chile Desert to be used for studying the Universe at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. However, ALMA does not resemble the typical image of a giant telescope as it consists of 66 antennas with 54 of them having 12-metre diameter dishes, and 12 smaller ones with a diameter of 7 metres each to gather faint radio waves from space for processing and doesn’t have shiny, reflective mirrors like optical telescopes. Optical telescopes capture visible light through electromagnetic radiation which has wavelengths roughly between 380 and 750 nanometres. However in contrast, ALMA, has the ability to pick up longer radiation wavelengths from a few hundred micrometres to about 1 millimetre which is about one thousand times longer than visible light. This enables ALMA to be able to look through the dense dust clouds deep in space.

The statement of ALMA not using optical images is referring to the telescope producing more accurate measurements and images compared to more common optical telescopes. The longer wavelengths that ALMA’s antennas can detect means that although the surfaces are accurate to within 25 micrometres and the dishes do not need the mirror finish to be able to interpret the what is seen through visible-light or optical telescopes.

The use of this telescope will allow astronomers to collect enough photons (small particles) to see things that are very faint like the light from galaxies, stars and cosmic dust billions of light years away. Since photons travel at the speed of light, by viewing the very distant objects through the telescopes means having to look back in time, as the light takes millions or billions of years to reach you. In doing so, this means that ALMA will be able to see dust which is about 13 billion light years away, which astronomers believe is from around half a billion years after the big bang. Back then, any stars or galaxies were "first generation" meaning that ALMA will be able to see the dust from which the first stars and galaxies were formed. As well as this, the wavelengths that ALMA will be able to pick up will allow astronomers to find out what the stars are made of depending on the patterns of wavelengths. This will be able to then tell us which atoms and molecules exist out there as well as measure the composition and distance of the birthplaces of first generation stars.

http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/a/Origin-Of-The-Universe.htm http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/st/Steady_state_theory
http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/ed/Edwin_Hubble http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question30.html
http://science.howstuffworks.com/asteroid-belt1.htm http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/oct/03/alma-glimpse-back-beginnings-universe
YouTube: The Holographic Universe – It’s All Illusion
Another Theory Of Creation: The Holographic Universe
The Holographic Universe Theory is another way that many believe the universe was formed, which states that the universe is a conscious hologram and that what we think to be reality, is merely a projected illusion within the hologram, like a shadow. Today many physicists would argue that the origin of the hologram is a virtual experiment that had been created in linear time to study emotions. A hologram is produced when a single laser light is split into two separate beams with the first beam being bounced off the object to be photographed and the second, colliding with the reflected light of the first. When this happens they create an interference pattern which is then recorded on a piece of film. As soon as another laser beam is shined through the film, a three-dimensional image of the original object reappears. The three-dimensionality of such images is usually eerily convincing allowing for us to actually walk around a holographic projection and view it from different angles as you would a real object.
Craig Hogan, a physicist at the Fermilab Particle Physics Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, has found the evidence for this theory after finding that GEO600 (one of the most sensitive gravitational wave detectors in Germany) had stumbled upon the fundamental limit of space-time. The point where space-time stops behaving like the smooth continuum that Einstein described and instead dissolves into “grains” (just as a newspaper photograph dissolves into dots as you zoom in). He also argued that the “physical” world around us behaves much like a hologram in this way. A piece of holographic film, all quanta exist as interfering wave patterns which results in the image being distributed throughout the entire film, just as quanta are distributed throughout the entire universe.
Everything that we see, hear and experience is not in the external world itself, but is in and being formed by our brains interpretations through the use of our five senses. What we see, hear and experience are only observations of electrical signals in our brains being conveyed to us through what we know about the physical world. In saying this, physicists have argued that when a laser beam (the light of consciousness) is directed at the interference waves, seemingly solid particles (three dimensional images) appear before our eyes.

Summary Of Dr. Brian Schmidt's Discovery That Won Him The Nobel Prize In Physics In 2011
•Einstein’s theory of gravity said that the universe should be in motion, whether it be getting bigger or getting smaller however astronomers were telling him that the universe was static.
•1916 Vesto Slipher saw that all of the galaxies in the universe were moving away from the Milky Way indicating the motion that Einstein had suggested about the universe’s motion. He was able to see that the redshifts of those galaxies that were moving away were appearing much redder compared to those that were closer that had a blue colouring.
•Hubble made sense of Slipher’s discoveries in measuring the distances between galaxies by focusing on the stars inside them, in doing so noticing the faster they moved away, the fainter the light of the galaxies which he interpreted into meaning that the universe was expanding.
•The use of a ‘standard candle’ is an object in space which always gives off the same amount of light so that there is a fair depiction of how close or how far away an object is.
•Brian Schmidt wanted to conduct and experiment that measured the ultimate fate of the universe by measuring how fast the universe was slowing down over time which would allow them to see how much gravity there was in the universe which he began in 1994.
•Schmidt used the standard candle of Type 1A Super Novae which are explosions of white dwarf stars (what the centre of our sun will become once it uses all of its nuclear fuel).
•White Dwarf Stars: In around 5 billion years, the outer parts of the sun will blow off leaving the centre of it to collapse down to around the size of the earth to then become a star that is a ticking nuclear bomb if it can be made to grow again to around 1.4 times the size of our sun presently in a matter of seconds after taking matter from a neighbouring star before exploding. This would then cause the sun to go from something that is very, very faint, over the course of a month, to around 5 billion times the brightness of the current sun before slowly fading into oblivion.
•The white dwarf stars’ brightness can be measured to around 7% which can be seen right across the universe.
•Originally, Schmidt was going to measure the distance between these exploding stars, more accurately than Hubble, by measuring how fast they were moving away (intensity of their redshifts), which they were then going to put them together to complete Hubble’s experiment nearby and then do it again a long way away, essentially looking into the universes past. By doing so they were going to be able to measure how fast the universe was expanding in the past and how fast it is expanding in the present to see how it has changed.
•This would allow us to see how fast it is slowing down in its expansion which would thus determine its ultimate fate of the universe to see whether it is going to expand forever or slow down enough so that it reaches its maximum size and collapse before into the Gnab Gib (Big Bang Backwards).
•At the end of 1997, Adam Reece (one of the members of his team), was discovering through the results that the universe wasn’t slowing down at all, but speeding up in its expansion which provokes them to think that they had made a mistake. However there was no mistake
•They believe that the solution to this puzzlement is that the universe is 73% made up of something that causes gravity to work in reverse. This was something that Einstein called the Cosmological Constant, but what we now know to be called Dark Energy.

Thanks For Watching :)
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