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Causes of the Mexican War of Independence
Transcript of Causes of the Mexican War of Independence
wikipedia Bourbon Reforms http://www.mongabay.com/history/mexico/mexico-the_bourbon_reforms_the_road_to_independence.html The Bourbon Reforms were made to promote economic growth in the mining and agricultural sectors and encourage infrastructure improvements by building better roads, bridges, and communication systems. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations
The History of Mexico, page 68 Although the reforms brought positive growth for New Spain, the colonists were not happy with all of the changes. "Increasingly, Spain filled many of the positions with Peninsulares rather than Creoles. Prior to the Bourbon reforms, Creoles had gained access to many bureaucratic offices. By 1750 as many as 51 out of 93 judges on the audencia were American-born Creoles. Yet after the implementation of the Bourbon Reforms, by 1807 only 12 of 99 were Creoles. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations
The History of Mexico, page 68 Because the political positions were being given to Peninsulares, Creoles began joining the military. By 1800, Creole to Spanish-born soldiers ratio was 23,000 to 6,000.
This proved disadvantageous to the Spanish during the war of independence. Alcabala- sales tax.
Under the reforms, taxes rose from 4 to 6 percent. The government also took control of tax collection and implemented a rigorous collection process that increased yearly revenues for Spain from 3 to 14 million pesos. Monopoly on products ranging from tobacco to alcohol or salt.
This did not let local citizens profit from sales
ensured substantial profit for Spain.
Complaints toward the system began as early as 1765 and became increasingly violent. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsThe History of Mexico, page 70 The Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsThe History of Mexico, page 70 As the anti government feelings increased and in 1776 the British Colonies separated themselves from Great Britain. Shortly after, the French Revolution started in 1789.
These two events helped start the support for the Revolution. In 1794, Antonio Nariño, one of the leaders of independence in what is now Colombia, translated, printed and distributed copies of the French "Declaration of Man." Rumors about a Revolution were spreading and the upper classes in New Spain were worried about who would potentially lead the new government. They did not want the government to be something shared by all people.
This fear was reinforced by a revolt in Haiti. Slaves were able to overthrow the white leadership and establish a government they were in charge of. 1806
Great Britain briefly occupied Buenos Aires
local Creoles organized a militia and threw them out. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsThe History of Mexico, page 70 The Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsThe History of Mexico, page 70 The Greenwood Histories of the Modern NationsThe History of Mexico, page 70 1808-1821 http://www.journeymexico.com/blog/el-grito/ ideas brought to Spain via the French and the Enlightenment economic and political legislation introduced by Spanish Crown promoted reason, universality, science, modernity, and efficiency King Charles III decided to implement the Bourbon reforms in New Spain in order to modernize the colony. The Crown wanted to stimulate manufacturing and technology New Spain The reforms increased taxes and gave the military more power In order to accomplish this, the political structure of New Spain was reorganized twelve intendencias (districts) were made
Each intendencia was headed by an intendente.
All the indententes reported to a single commandant general in Mexico City and the commandant in Mexico City reported directly to the king. The Crown did this in hopes that the reforms would have a positive effect on the economy of Spain.The Bourbon Reforms were intended to limit the power of Creoles and re-establish Spanish control over their colonies. http://www.casahistoria.net/mexico_brazil.htm http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/331694/history-of-Latin-America/60863/The-Bourbon-reforms Spain filled most elite positions with Peninsulares
Before the Bourbon Reforms, about 60% of judges on the Audiencia were Creoles
After the implementation of the reforms, the number of Creoles in government dropped drastically
by 1807, only 12 out of 99 members of the Audiencia were Creoles "Many Creoles found this policy insulting and began to argue that they had a closer identification with colonial concerns than the Peninsulares did, and thus Creoles should direct the colonial bureaucracy. Others saw the Crown's policy as a continuation of the long-held view that Peninsulares were inherently better than Creoles." (Kirkwood, 2000) Creoles in the Military The Crown's Monopoly The Revolutionary War and the French Revolution http://www.westernfreepress.com/2012/11/20/losing-the-battle-to-spin-the-war/minutemen-revolutionary-war-11/ http://payingattentiontothesky.com/2011/07/11/the-french-revolution-and-catholicism-in-the-18th-century-by-christopher-dawson/ Slave Revolt in Haiti Expulsion of the British from Buenos Aires The successful overthrow of the British reinforced the idea that the colonists controlled their own destiny.
The sentiment was captured by the Creole leader Manuel Belgrano, who reportedly declared, "Either I am master or none at all." Not only did the victory over the British solidify the sentiment that the Creoles could control themselves, but it fostered the idea that throughout Spanish America that they could both lead and protect themselves. Nationalism Sense of "Mexicanidad" began to reject the idea that European things were superior Spain began to rely more on New Spain than New Spain relied on Spain More than 60% of income from colonies came from what was soon to be Mexico
Spain made heavy demands
Royal Law of Consolidation - allowed Spain seize Church lands and auction them off to meet rising expenditures in Europe. This was detrimental to New Spain. One of the people affected by this Royal Law of Consolidation was Miguel Hidalgo When the French seized Spain in 1808 the Creoles demanded autonomy and they created a temporary governing body that was planned to last only until the king was restored to the throne. Miguel Hidalgo born May 8, 1753 to a Creole family
earned degrees in philosophy and theology along with studies of Latin, rhetoric, and logic
he also learned three indigenous languages (Nahuatl, , Otomi and Tarascan) as well as Italian and French
participant in the "literary club" of Querétaro Full Name: Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor Hidalgo used his French to study the Enlightenment.
"His studies of Enlightenment-era ideas caused him to challenge traditional political and religious views. He questioned the absolute authority of the Spanish king and challenged numerous ideas presented by the Church, including the absolute power of the Pope, the virgin birth, and clerical celibacy." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_Hidalgo_y_Costilla Miguel also enjoyed behaviors regarded as "outside of the parameters" for priests, including dancing and gambling. Hidalgo also openly lived with a woman named Maria Manuela Herrera Kirkwood, Burton (2000). History of Mexico. Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-313-30351-7. Hidalgo also did not pay much attention to laws set in place by the Spanish crown. He continually read banned books and violated colonial agricultural practices by growing grapes in order to make wine The Mexican War of Independence September 1810 While the government was arresting suspected conspirators, Miguel Hidalgo, who was 57 at the time, was betrayed by someone in the literary club.
He received a warning on September 16, 1810 informing him that the government was coming after him. John Tutino (1989). From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750-1940. Princeton University Press. p. 43. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_War_of_Independence The literary clubs, at this time, were relatively safe places for conspirators to come together. Hidalgo's literary club decided they would announce Mexico's independence on December 8, 1810. The authorities, however, heard about their plans ahead of time. La Conspiración de los Machetes Unsuccessful rebellion in 1799 led by Pedro de la Portilla
Portilla organized a meeting with around 20 youths who were either relatives or friends
Their plan was to free prisoners and storm the viceroy palace in order to capture the high tranking officals and secure funds. Afterwards, they were going to proclaim Mexico's independence, declare war on Spain and either kill or expel the Peninsulares. "To accomplish this, they were counting on 1,000 pesos of silver, two pistols, and some 50 cutlasses and machetes to initiate a popular uprising under the patronage of the Virgin of Guadalupe." At the second meeting, Portillo's cousin became alarmed at the preparations, and went to the authorities to denounce the conspiracy (November 10, 1799). Viceroy Miguel José de Azanza gave orders that they be arrested without revealing the motives of their conspiracy in order to avoid excitement. "All the conspirators were apprehended and spent many years in prison. The trial was long, and did not reach a verdict. Some of them died in prison. Portilla himself lived to see the independence of Mexico." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conspiracy_of_the_Machetes Grito de Dolores (history of mexico) Kirkwood, Burton (2000). History of Mexico. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. On September 16, 1810 Miguel declared Mexico's independence from Dolores, Guanajuato. This events marks the beginning of the independence movement.
Some of the things he proclaimed were "Long live Ferdinand VII", "Long live religion", "Death to bad government", and "Death to Gachupines" (Gachupines was an offense term for Peninsulares).
Hidalgo used the Virgin of Guadalupe at the head of the insurgent army Ignacio Allende Ignacio Allende was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who sided with the Mexican independence movement. He fought with Miguel Hidalgo and eventually succeeding him in leadership of the rebellion. Allende was captured by Spanish colonial authorities while he was in Chihuahua and executed for treason. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignacio_Allende Allende's troops vs. Hidalgo's troops Allende's military experience
prohibited his troops from harming the locals Hidalgo had no military experience
Hidalgo found it difficult to control his mob of people
Hidalgo's troops were accused of rape, destroying property, and murder Important Cities/Battles Guanajuato
Alhóndiga de Granaditas (a public granary)
built by the viceroy in in the early 1800's
Spaniards and rich creoles took refuge here when Hidalgo and his men attacked Guanajuato http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alh%C3%B3ndiga_de_Granaditas kirkwood The Spaniards thought their location inside the alhóndiga de granaditas would protect them from Hidalgo's army, but the insurgents began to attack, they burnt down a door and were able to enter. The person in charge of burning down the door was Juan José de los Reyes Martínez Amaro, better known as El Pípila.
He walked backwards with a a long flat stone tied to his back to protect himself from the gunshots being fired from the granary. He also carried a torch which he used to burn the entrance.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_P%C3%ADpila http://yoreme.wordpress.com/2010/09/15/el-pipila/ Hidalgo's troops killed the people inside the granary. There were about 400-600 men, women and children inside.
Similar events occurred in Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí .
These events almost repeated themselves in Mexico City but Hidalgo decided not to attack. Instead, the troops headed over to Guadalajara.