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Energy Systems

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elisha potterton

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of Energy Systems

The Energy Systems
Lactic Acid
• Lactic Acid system produces the best performance at about 90 seconds.
• Lactic acid is a short term energy system.
• An anaerobic process does not need oxygen.
• Glycogen is stored in the muscles and the liver.
• This Changes to glucose before being broken down and releasing energy for ATP.
This system involves the partial breakdown of glucose to form lactic acid in a number of chemical reactions which is known as Glycolysis. The glucose for this process either comes from the glucose stored on the blood or comes from the breakdown of glycogen in the liver or the muscle.
Sporting Example:
800m- we get fatigue in running between 300m and 800m. Lactic acids build up due to a lack of oxygen.
The disadvantage of this is that the lactic acid system does not always give the sufficient amount of oxygen required for the activity taking part. Which means you will become more tired easily.
The lactic acid system provides a rapid supply of ATP, which give short bursts of energy for the activity taking part. This usually lasts about 30-60 seconds but could last up to 2-3 minutes.
How long the lactic acid system lasts depends on the intensity of the activity taking part so the exercise is a low intense activity, the longer that lactic acid system will last.
The disadvantage of this system is that there are left overs of lactic acid where the muscles feel heavy and tired which means the athlete cannot continue.

Glucose- 2ATP + 2Lactic Acid + Heat.
Glucose-3ATP + 2Lactic Acid + Heat.


ATP
ATP is the energy currency that is linked to intensity and duration of physical activity.
The body maintains a continuous supply of energy for when the body requires it,through the use of ATP. (more intense, the more ATP).
ATP is used for many things. A reaction between an Adenosine Dilphosphate molecule and a Phosphate.
ATP supplies energy for 2-3 seconds at a time.
Creatine Phosphate
Energy Systems
All movement requires energy.
The methods by which your body produces energy is determined by the intensity and duration of the activity being carried out.
Activities that require short bursts of energy such as sprinting or jumping need the body to produce large amounts of energy over a short period of time, compared to long distance running or cycling that need the body to provide constant energy production over a longer period of time than sprinting or jumping.
A
A
A
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
A= Adenosine Dilphosphate molecule
P= Phosphate
When the bond is broken, energy is released.
When the bond is made, energy is stored for later use.
Creatine phosphate is a high energy system.
When exercising and the intensity is high, or energy needs are immediate, creatine phosphate stored in muscle is broken down so it can provide energy to make ATP. When the high energy bond in Pcr is broken, energy is released that is used to resynthesise ATP. Resynthesise ATP in the first 10 seconds of intensive exercise.
• Pcr is limited.
• Store alongside with ATP in the muscle cell which store are limited.
• When during high intensity exercises, glycogen can be used during anaerobic metabolism, however much more energy is released during aerobic metabolism.
This energy system is only used during the first 10 seconds of high intensive exercise and does not need oxygen, it works anaerobically.
Any longer that the first tens seconds the performance starts to decrease and start to fatigue and switch to the lactic acid system.
Sporting Example:
-100m sprint
require explosive and intense energy for only a short amount of time which is 10 seconds. then they are best suited to this particular system. this means that the muscles won't fatigue
.
-weight lifting
The disadvantage of this system that there is not enough Creatine Phosphate to last very long and the athlete will become tired very easily.

Aerobic energy system
Long term energy system.
Produces water and carbon dioxide which doesn't affect the ability of muscles to contract.
This energy system is a long term energy system and lasts for as long as the athlete can produce enough oxygen to the working muscles. This requires oxygen to be present. Enough oxygen, Glycogen and fatty acids are required to breakdown of the glucose to produce more ATP. This also supplies the right amount of energy for the activity taking place.
The disadvantages of this system is that is takes a while to react for the activity that is taking place, and this system cannot provide the correct amount of energy to the mitochondria to be able to allow for high intensity exercise. The system doesn’t lasts forever. It only lasts for as long there is enough oxygen provided.
Aerobic energy system can be broken down into 3 sections, which are: -Glycolysis
-Kreb's Cylce
-Electron transport chain

Glucose + Oxygen = 38ATP + CO2 + Water + Heat.
Fatty Acids + Oxygen = 129ATP + CO2 + Water + Heat.


Sporting Example: Marathon
At the beginning of a sporting activity the body cannot provide oxygen quickly to muscles, so therefore the body goes through a certain process which is anaerobic process for the first few minutes before the muscles can start to use oxygen. This is helpful toward a marathon as a marathon takes over a long period of time.

For recovery it depends on what sporting activity has taken place such a sport that is of a short period of time, where the glycogen stores haven't been worn out, it does not take long to recover. Whereas a long period of time will take longer to recover as the glycogen store could be worn out and could take a couple of days to recover.

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron transport chain
Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose or glycogen to produce ATP.
The body switches to glycogen to fuel working muscles once Pcr store have been worn out.
Glycogen breaking down gives the energy to rebuild ATP from ADP, but glycogen which is stored in the liver and the muscles first must be changed through the process of Glycolysis.
Aerobic glycolysis is the same as anaerobic glycolysis which is broken down into pyruvic acid. The oxygen is now present, the reaction can continue through the energy systems as lactic acid is no longer produced.

Krebs cycle is also known as the TCA cycle. The Krebs Cycle is an aerobic process of eight reactions that happens in the mitochondria. These reactions form a key part of aerobic respiration cells. The sequence of reactions where the living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration. The Krebs Cycle takes place in the mitochondria, taking up oxygen and producing carbon dioxide and water as waste products, which ADP is transformed to energy of ATP.
Pyruvic acid is produced in the first stage and diffuses into the surrounding substance of mitochondria where it is broken down. This combines with oxaloacetric acid to form citric acid. This is changed into a number of different compounds in a series of reactions that produces more energy which during this cycle three important things happen: - 1) Carbon dioxide is formed, 2) oxidation takes place- hydrogen is removed from the compound, 3) sufficient energy is released to synthesis two molecules of ATP.


Electron transport chain is a chain of compounds that handover electrons from one to another through redox reactions joined with the transfer of proton across a membrane to create a proton rise that motivates ATP synthesis.
Sport
Creatine Phosphate
energy system
Lactic acid energy system
Aerobic energy system
Archery
Basketball
Hockey
Netball
Football
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
______
Low
High
Low
High
Archery has low lactic acid energy as they are holding the bow for not a long period of time, if they do the energy will change into a higher lactic acid system. Releasing the bow requires high levels in energy.
As for basketball they have high Creatine Phophate due to having high explosives of energy and moderate lactic acid energy due to running up and down the court. The aerobic system is quite low because they have short, sharp sprints and jumps in the game, they do not require as much oxygen. This is the same for netball as they have certain positions for the players that are restricted to.
Where as football and hockey have a higher aerobic energy system as they run for a long period of time through out the game, which requires more oxygen to the working muscles in order to perform to their best ability.
This graph shows that ATP store creates the maximum amount of energy that is produced and lasts for the shortest period of time which is 2 seconds. The ATP-PC system doesn't reach as high as the ATP store system but does last longer which is 10seconds. The lactic acid system is half of the energy what the ATP-PC produces, although it lasts for 60-90 seconds. the graph also shows that when the lactic acid system is it its highest level of energy it decrease dramatically due to the onset of lactic acid and muscle fatigue. lastly the aerobic system pretty much stays the same level of energy produced which levels off. This can last up to 2-3 hours as this system relies on food to create the energy.
Reference: Picture of graph-
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/pictures/physiology/energy.gif
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