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Maggie Shia

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Strawberry

Introduction Crop Productivity Costs Organoleptic Evaluation Processing & Manufacturing Strawberries Benefits February 20th Group 3
By: Alyssa Cheung, Yura Kim, Colleen Lem, Maggie Shia How to Harvest Strawberries: -Gently snap the pedicel (stem) from plant

-Avoid bruising strawberries

-Extremely perishable, fresh strawberries must reach consumers within 2 days of harvest - Cool the strawberries as soon as possible after harvesting

- Optimum storage temperature at home is 32-36 degrees F

- Keep in closed plastic containers or in opened plastic bags to maintain high humidity

- Do not wash berries until just before eating or it will add moisture - cause to spoil more rapidly How to Store Strawberries: Methods for preserving -Strawberries are acidic
-pH of whole ripe strawberries 3.3-3.6
-Freeze, dry, and make jams and jellies.

-Strawberry preserves make up 12% of total production of all fruit spreads and is the most produced variety of fruit spread in the country - cancer
- diabetes
- arthritis
- heart diseases
- high blood pressure
- gout Anthocyanins (Red Pigment) White Mold -Common fungus, Botrytis cinerea.
-Spores, or single-celled "seeds" of Botrytis found on nearly all harvest strawberries, mainly wet weather.

-For safety- reduce the growth of fungus by storing it in the refrigerator. -Protects skin against UVA radiation
-Fight free-radicals
-Reduces the DNA damage
-Popular cosmetic ingredient
-anti-tumour - Volatile esters and sulfur-containing compounds play an important role in the flavor of strawberries Strawberries can Help with Diabetics -Contains compound called Fisetin

-A flavonoid found in strawberries

– Might help prevent type 1 and type 2 diabetes complications of kidney as well as brain disease that can lead to Alzheimer’s Strawberry Allergy -The most severe case is pseudoanaphylaxis
-Direct release of histamine when substance, "histamine liberators" are encountered
-Can lead to death -Some research indicates that the allergy is linked to a protein involved with the reddening of strawberries

-Protein named, Fragaria allergen 1, or Fra a1 Strawberries May Prevent Cancer -Most known anti-cancer strawberry compound, ellagic acid, that can prevent angiogenesis.
-The process by which blood vessels grow and maintain their balance within a body
-Many disease processes are either directly caused or related to out-of-control blood vessel formation. Fun Facts - The leaves are used in herbal teas and cosmetics

- Strawberry flavoring is used in medication and skin care

- Strawberry extract found in shampoo, conditioners, air fresheners, and laundry detergent Pesticides in Strawberries Methyl Bromide
-Known to deplete the ozone layer
-Can cause eye and skin irritation, blurred or double vision, slurred speech, dizziness, vomiting, and abdominal pain
-Supposedly phased out completely by 2005
-But in 2009, still more than 5 million pounds used (50% decrease from 2000) Alternative to Methyl Bromide What Exactly is a Strawberry? Methyl Iodide
-Approved by the EPA in 2007
-Directly applied to soil before planting
-Does not remain for a long time, evaporates in air

-Increase risk of cancer, brain damage, and miscarriages
-Cause confusion, dizziness, loss of motor coordination

-Farmworkers at risk
-No methyl iodide risk in eating strawberries
-No residual methyl iodide exists on the fruit - Frageria x ananassa
- Member of the rose family
- An aggregate-accessory fruit
- Aggregate - several smaller fruits creating the larger fruit
- Accessory - flesh of the strawberry (receptacle of flower)
- The white specks (seeds) are actually the fruits and are known as achene System Approach on Strawberries System Variables Farmer Working Conditions -Legality varies by countries and states
-Usually migrant workers -- Recruited from home then transported to farms
-Working days vary due to weather condition
-Trade union representation is only limited to full time workers
-Temporary living quarters are usually located in secluded rural areas
-Labor intensive
-Hand picking Nutrition -High in fiber

-Excellent source of vitamin C & Flavonoids

-Good source of Folate & Potassium

-Relatively low in calories -Crop Production
-Functuality Inputs Processes Outputs -Food Industrial Processing/
-Organoleptic expectation Nutrition
Safety Lowers Risk of: -Berry surface is fully red, without green or white areas

-It will contain maximum sweetness and flavor

- Season extends from Jan-Nov along CA coast, with peaks in April, May, and June When to pick strawberries: Strawberries are Used in a Variety of Products According to a study conducted in Switzerland: - Consumers like strawberries that have a high intensity of sweetness and aroma

- Odor, acidity, juiciness, and firmness are not related to quality Inputs Processes Outputs -Crop selection
-Agricultural Management
-Commodity Composition -Harvesting
-Preserving -Consumer Expectation
-Consumer Knowledge Main Inputs To Produce -Land Preparation and Bed-Up
-Plant Establishment
-Irrigation - water
-Pest Management - Fumigation, weed, disease, insects
-Harvest - yields, returns coolers, sales/marketing,
-Equipment Operating Cost
-Risk Growing Strawberries - Lots of sunlight

- Plant on clean-cultivated soil

- Prefer a loose, sandy loam that is deep and contains very high amounts of organic matter

- Pick a site that has good soil drainage and surface drainage

- Cultivate and weed every two weeks after planting

- Mulch after first fall frost
- keeps the berries clean, moist, and checks weed growth Strawberry Runners (Stolons) -Stolons - latin word for shoot, branch, or twig springing from the root
-Produce “runners” as a means of propagating themselves
-Horizontal stems that run above the ground
-Produce new clone plants at nodes spaced at varying intervals

Benefits - saves money, time, and very abundant Polyploidy in Strawberries -Polyploidy, occurs when multiple pairs of chromosomes are present in the genetic component of an organism
_Breed = variety of different strawberries Price of Growing Strawberries Different Growing Methods -$2.1 Billion industry

- Site preparation and equipment costs are relatively low

- However labor, storage, and transporting methods increase the cost Hill System
-runners removed
-most labor intensive
-more yield

Spaced-Row System
-limit the number of daughter plants that grow from a mother plant
-larger berries produced
-fewer disease problems

Matted-Row System
-runners allowed to root freely and produce daughter plants
-least labor intensive Strawberry Antioxidant Levels Study measuring different antioxidant levels: (ranked from highest to lowest)

HAA (hydrophilic antioxidant activity) Levels
dry weight - fresh, freeze-dried, frozen, jam
consumed weight - freeze-dried, fresh, frozen, jam

LAA (lipophilic antioxidant activity) Levels
dry weight - fresh, frozen, freeze-dried, jam
consumed weight - frozen and fresh same, freeze-dried, jam

Total Antioxidant Levels
dry weight - fresh. freeze-dried, frozen, jam
consumed weight - freeze-dried, fresh, frozen, jam Strawberry Markets Strawberry Strengthens Bones - Excellent source of the trace mineral manganese

- Essential for maintaining healthy bone structure, absorbing calcium, creating enzymes that build bone

- Helps prevent arthritis - Direct marketing: selling directly to consumers through roadside stands and farmers' markets

- Wholesale marketing: more demanding, for large producers and grower cooperatives, must meet standards in grading, packaging, storage, and transportation Risks -Artificial transfer of genes from a species of fish called the Arctic Flounder Fish.
-It produces an anti-freeze that
allows it to protect himself in freezing waters.
-Isolated the gene and introduce it to the strawberry
-Result = strawberry that looks blue and
doesn't turn to mush or degrade after being placed in the freezer. Blue Strawberry - Weather
- extreme winter temperatures can destroy crops
- excessive rain can interfere with pollination and harvest

- Insects and pests

- Weeds

- Labor strikes or shortages

- Trucking strikes or delayed delivery How many seeds are in just one strawberry? 200 seeds! -The strawberry is the symbol for the Love Goddess, Venus

-Strawberries can help whiten your teeth. The acids in the fruit help to remove stains

-In Ancient Rome, strawberries were considered to be a medicinal cure all.

-In Bavaria, farmers will harvest strawberries and then place them in little baskets and hang these baskets over their cow's horns. Why? Because the strawberries in the baskets are an offering to the elves who they believe will help their cows produce healthy calves and supply ample amounts of milk. DID you know... E. Coli Outbreak - August 2011
- Newberg, Oregon
- 14 people ill, one death
- E. coli O157:H7
- deer droppings responsible for outbreak
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