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rachel maguire

on 6 August 2013

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Transcript of Cholera

Who Cares?
Mortality Rates:
- Treated quickly: <1%
- Untreated: 50-60%

But isn't that just a 3rd world problem?
For the most part, yes.
What is it?
primarily include profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear liquid.
How Do These Bacteria Survive the Stomach?
Increased in children and people with lowered immunity often due to AIDS and malnourishment
Vibrio cholerae
Cholera affects an estimated 3–5 million people worldwide and causes 58,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. In the early 1980s, death rates are believed to have been greater than 3 million a year or, to put it into context, about the population of Chicago.
For certain genetic strains, such as the one present during the
epidemic in Haiti and the 2004 outbreak in India, death can occur WIITHIN TWO HOURS of becoming ill!
Thanks to water treatment and sanitation practices, Cholera is no longer a major health threat in developed countries, but it has been known to spread through seafood, and it is still very much an issue in other countries.
"Blue Death"
dehydration causes skin to turn bluish-gray
dehydration & electrolyte imbalances
Blood Pressure
Skin Turgor
sunken eyes
By: Rachel Maguire
of the Small Intestine
Bacterial Infection
Decreased in those who are heterozygous for mutant allele.
Cystic Fibrosis
"Heterozygote Advantage"
may explain why Cystic Fibrosis is one of the most common gene defects

A = Dominant Allele
a = Recessive Allele
AA = Homozygous Dominant
aa = Homozygous Recessive
Aa = Heterozygous
Not Gonna Kill You,
Not Gonna Help You

*Being Heterozygous isn't a vaccine, so technically they're not "free" but are less likely to contract the infection
Cholera bacteria conserve energy and stored nutrients while passing through the highly acidic environment of the stomach which, thanks to Cholera's sensitivity to acid, is successful in killing a majority of bacteria, but children, older adults, and people who take antacids have lower levels of stomach acid, so they lack this first line of defense.
Cholera Toxin
Big Picture
Once through the stomach and into the small intestine, the bacteria begin forming flagella to propel themselves through the mucus lining to reach the intestinal wall.
Check out the interactive JMOL image for all the specifics!
(CTX or CT)
Once it reaches the intestinal wall, the bacteria wreak havoc with a tiny little protein by messing with some of biology's most fundamental processes.
Basically, these proteins interact with G-proteins on the surface of the small intestine causing a bunch of ions to be pumped INTO the lumen of the small intestine which results in a flood of water NOT being reabsorbed.
And that's lethal because these next two things affect a lot of things in the human body, and when they're messed up, a lot of things go wrong.
Water Potential
There are 100 TRILLION cells in the human body, so how in the world do they manage to coordinate activities when none of them have voices of their own or fingers to text with?
Some of the most important components of cell-signaling are called
One of the ways cells communicate is through the use of chemical signaling molecules that bind to SPECIFIC receptor molecules & activate SPECIFIC signal transduction pathways
Unfortunately, these ions can cause big problems which can be lethal if not corrected due to something known as
water potential = solute potential + pressure potential
Basically, in animal cells, where there is no
pressure potential, the direction in which water
moves is dependent on the number of ions in the solution. If possible, water moves from areas of higher water potential (fewer solutes) to areas of lower water potential (more solutes).
Just Remember:
Water Follows the Solute
so wherever there are more ions or more dissolved and suspended materials, there will be more water.
V. Choleae bacteria are typically ingested through contaminated water supplies, and when they reach the small intestine, they release toxins that interact with a vital group of cell signaling proteins causing these proteins to release chemicals telling the cell to pump ions into the lumen of the small intestine. Following the principles of water potential, water floods into the lumen where it will continue to flow through the digestive system until it is excreted, producing large amounts of watery diarrhea. If the bacteria ae allowed to proliferate unchecked and untreated, the watery diarrhea will lead to severe dehydration.

Vibrio cholerae
By: Rachel Maguire
The Methods Behind the Epidemics, and
How Outdated, Inadequate Sanitary Systems Facilitate the Spread of this Highly Preventable Killer
The Story of
The G-Protein is activated when a signaling molecule binds to the receptor, increasing its affinity for the G-protein which is then activated with the addition of GTP. Under normal, healthy conditions, the G-Protein activates only one or a few enzymes before becoming inactive.
G-Proteins act as a sort of intermediate, passing on the signal from reception to cellular response.
In the model to the right, the G-protein activates an enzyme called Adenylyl Cyclase which is responsible for catalyzing the transformation of ATP to cyclicAMP which then acts as a second messenger activating additional cellular responses. This is the specific signaling pathway that the Cholera Toxin affects.
The Cholera Toxin wreaks havoc by transferring ADP-ribose from NAD to the G-protein thereby inhibiting the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP thus rendering the G-protein incapable of becoming inactive and dissociating from the active cyclase complex. This results in endless production of cAMP and therefore accelerated stimulation of specific cellular responses, specifically the pumping of ions into the lumen of the small intestine.
Pumping of Ions into the Lumen of the Small Intestine
OK, so cholera toxin causes some ions to be moved around, but how can a bunch of misplaced ions possibly kill so many people?
The Specifics:
How it Works:
Don't Forget to Check out this Interactive JMOL Image to Learn More About the Protein's Mechanisms!

Hopefully You Learned Something New! More Presentations will be on their Way!
Thanks for checking this out! Please leave a comment or suggestion on Prezi before you go! They WILL be read and taken into consideration!
Thank You In Advance!
-Rachel Maguire
Full transcript