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the Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching
Transcript of the Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching
30's 60's This method is idely used at the time of writing and a very large number of textbooks are based on it. Harold Palmer
A.S. Hornby they wanted to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English It was sen as an essential component of reading proficiency vocabulary grammar it was based on the assumption that one universal logic formed the basis of all languages and that the teacher's responsability was to show how each category of the universal grammar was to be expressed in the foreign language. they classified its major gramatical structures into sentence patterns "substitution tables" The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English principles of selection 1. Gradation how lexical and grammatical content is chosen 2. Presentation techniques used for presentation andpractice of items in a course Direct Method and Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching Direct method it lacks of systematic basis in applied linguistic theory and practice the main characteristics of the approach 1. Language Teching Begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form| 2. The target language is the languge of the classroom 3. Language points are introduced and practiced situationally 4. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered 5. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones. 6. Reading and writin are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established Theory of Language British structuralism
Speech was the basis of language. Situation It's the principal classroom activity in teaching of English structure will be the oral practie of structures. This oral practice of controlled sentence patterns should be given in situations designed to give the greatest amount of practice in English speech to the pupil Structures must be linked to situations in which they could be used Theory of Learning Type of behaviorist habit-learning theory three processes in learning a language: 1. receive the knowledge or materials 2. fix the memory by repetition 3. use language in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill Grammar is taught inductively explanation is discouraged
the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a partiular structure or vocabulary item the learner is expected to apply the language learned in a classroom to situations outisde the classroom. objectives: to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language Skills are approached through structure.
Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar is crucial. Syllabus Structures are always taught within sentenes. Vocabulary is chosen according to how well it enables sentence patterns to be taught situation refers to the manner of presenting and practicing sentence patterns Types of learning and teaching activities Sentence patterns
Drill-based manner of practicing sentence patterns situation is the use of concrete objects, ictures and realia which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the manings of new language items. Typical Activity:
Consist of guided repetition
(such as chorus repetition, dictation, drills and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks). Learner Roles The learner is required simply to LISTEN & REPEAT what the teacher says to respond to question-commands Active Participation Teacher Roles it's a model s/he sets up situations to create the use of the target language it's a skillfull conductor its role is to elicit correct sentences through using questions, commands and other cues responsabilities 1. timing
2. oral practice, to support the textbook structures;
3. revision (review)
4. adjustment to special needs ofindividuals
6. developing language activities other than those arising fom the textbook
Material consists of:
charts, flashcards, pictures, stick figures and so on.
The visual element with carefully graded grammatical syllabus is a crucial element Procedure it aims to move from controlled to freer practice of structures it moves from oral use of sentence patterns to their automatic use in speech, reading, and writing. Lesson planning 1. pronunciation
2. revision (to prepare for new work if necessary)
3. presentation of new structure or vocabulary)
4. oral practice (drilling)
5. reading of material on the new structure or written exercises.