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Becoming an Ethical Professional
Transcript of Becoming an Ethical Professional
engaging in logical thinking
responsibility to make moral decisions
exposure to moral controversy which challenges the structure of one's present stage
being exposed to the reasoning of individuals whose thinking is one stage higher than one's own
participating in creating and maintaining a just community whose members pursue common goals and resolve conflict with mutual respect and fairness Most colleges in the 1800s required a course in moral philosophy
Typically taught by the college president
Colleges focused not only on teaching facts, but also moral sensibility to set up students for success
Courses involved history in philosophical thought and a system of beliefs, values, and skills to solve ethical dilemmas
Today, most professional schools require a course in professional ethics stimulate "moral imagination" with difficult dilemmas
encourage recognition of ethical issues and larger questions
develop analytical skills and tools of ethical analysis
elicit a sense of moral obligation and personal responsibility
tolerate and resist disagreement and ambiguity
understand the morality of coercion
integrate technical and moral competence
become familiar with the full range or moral issues businesses are hiring "ethics officers"
ethics centers offer ethics training for many organizations; state to private ex: Josephson Institute
Many believe in training prior to real-life dilemmas
Learning theorists believe "supervision and discipline are the vehicles to creating and ethical organization"
others believe training is less important than ethical behavior from adminstrators and supervisors The Criminal Justice Professional Sources Morality is not rational
VIDEO: “Are you a Psychopath? Take the Test” Shermer (2004) Cougar vs. Kitten Genetics and socialization
Evolutionary trend Shermer (2004) Biological gender differences of brain activity
VIDEO: “Men’s Brain, Women’s Brain” Ellis and Pontius (1989) Geico Caveman vs. Male Model Wolf vs. Chihuahua Linkage between brain and development of moral behavior?
VIDEO: “Traumatic Brain Injury: What Happens Biological Factors Bjorner, Jakob, Borritz, Marianne, et. al. “Burnout Among Employees in Human Service
Work: Design and Baseline Findings of the PUMA Study.” Scandinavian Journal of
Public Health. 34.1 (2006): 49-58. January 28, 2013.
Cherry, Kendra. "The Bystander Effect." About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb.
Cherry, Kendra. "Social Learning Theory." About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb.
Matsui, Mie, Nishijo, Hisao, et. al. “Developmental Trajectories of Amygdala and
Hippocampus from Infancy to Early Adulthood in Healthy Individuals.” Public Library
of Science ONE. 7.10 (2012): 1-10. January 22, 2013.
Murray, Mary E. "Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview." University of
Illinois at Chicago. University of Illinois at Chicago, 2 Dec. 2008. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.
Reiman, Jeffrey. "The Moral Ambivalence Of Crime In An Unjust Society." Criminal Justice Ethics
26.2 (2007): 3-15. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Feb. 2013. Whistleblowers: those who risk their career to expose wrongdoing in their organization
Even if the behavior is obviously illegal, it is difficult to challenge authority
Police Officers Follow superiors’ orders or make own assessment of morality of the action?
Military justice does not generally allow a defense of “following orders” if the order is against a treaty or law Soldiers Burnout – the condition in which a worker has abandoned the mission of the organization and is just “going through the motions”
Cynicism and burnout lead to unethical actions
VIDEO: “The Sweeney” Police Officers Every professional is morally and ethically responsible for their decisions and actions
Soldiers and police officers have similar dilemmas Criminal Justice Professional Josephson Institute Individuals do not intervene in an emergency situation due to a diffusion of responsibility (somebody else will help) (Cherry) The Bystander Effect Moral justification- terrorists fighting for a cause
Euphemistic labeling- “collateral damage” for killing civilians in times of war
Advantageous comparison- vandalism is not as bad as some other illegal acts like burglary
Displacement of responsibility- “I was only following orders.”
Diffusion of responsibility- “It wasn’t just me. All of my friends were doing it too.”
Disregard or distortion of the consequences- CEO gives order to pollute by requesting that the problem be “taken care of”
Dehumanization- use of racial slurs and other dehumanizing references Examples Developed social learning theory and idea of modeling as mechanism of development
Rewards differ by age
With maturity, concrete rewards are replaced by symbolic and internal controls (conscience)
We are active participants in the construction and meaning of rewards
Self-efficacy: individuals’ feelings of competence and confidence in their own abilities and power, developed by comparing themselves to others
Self-Regulation occurs through anticipatory sanctions Albert Bandura Definition: psychological term referring to the discomfort that is created when behavior and attitude or belief are inconsistent
“If we do acts that are contrary to the beliefs that we have been taught, we will feel discomfort.”
Result: This discomfort results in either a change in our behavior or a change in our beliefs Cognitive Dissonance 1. Live model- an individual demonstrates the behavior
2. Verbal instructional model- descriptions and explanations of the behavior
3. Symbolic model- real or fictional characters display the behavior (books, movies, television)
(Cherry) Bandura’s Models of Observational Learning Moral justification- end justifies the mean
Euphemistic labeling- word usage which downplays seriousness of actions
Advantageous comparison- action is not as bad as some other action
Displacement of responsibility- idea that individual is not a free-thinking agent in order to deny culpability
Diffusion of responsibility- responsibility for an action is diffused among a group of people
Disregard or distortion of the consequences- denial of responsibility through the misidentification of consequences
Dehumanization- strip victim of any qualities of similarity to reduce sympathy Bandura’s Methods of Cognitive Restructuring Modeling- people learn behaviors, values, and attitudes through relationships; they identify with another person and want to be like that person and pattern themselves after the “model”
ex: parents or priest
Reinforcement- behaviors and beliefs that are reinforced through rewards eventually become permanent
ex: material rewards or praise How do we learn right from wrong? Children learn what they are taught
Right and wrong are not established through reasoning
We are shaped by the world around us
An infant can be taught any behavior desired Learning Theory Linked moral development and reason
Great for educational purposes- theoretically will abandon lower level of thinking for higher level Importance of Kohlberg Focus is on concept of justice, ignoring other aspects of morality
Moral development is culturally based-reflecting religious beliefs of Kohlberg
Too much focus on rational thinking as opposed to emotional aspects of morality
Not a linear progression in one’s moral development Critiques of Kohlberg Group Activity Social contract orientation: recognizes interest larger than current laws, the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Universal ethics principles orientation: use of abstract reasoning, empathy, acts because it is right, not legal, expected or agreed upon, and few operate at this level. Post-Conventional Level: moves beyond the norms and laws of a society to determine universal good for all, assumes responsibility of judging laws and conventions, many never reach this level Interpersonal concordance orientation: does good to be perceived as good, inherent value by filling societal roles, control behavior so as not to hurt other’s feelings or be thought of as bad
Law and order orientation: concern with interpersonal relationships and with rules set down by society, even if laws are wrong, to disregard them would cause social chaos, most people stay here
"For there to be peace, people must be able to count on their fellows obeying the law, and to provide that reliability, people must be willing to obey the law even when they disagree with"
(Reiman 11) Conventional Level: typical of adolescents and adults, judge morality by comparing what society views and expects, submerge individual interest to conform Punishment and obedience orientation: not about behavior but about consequences of behavior
Instrument and relativity orientation: awareness of others’ needs, broadened concept of self-interest, relationships are included in self-interest. “You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”. Pre-conventional Level: egocentric, common in children, judge morality by direct consequences, personal interests Kohlberg’s
Stages Before Kohlberg
First believed we all go through stages of cognitive or intellectual growth
Studied rules that children develop through play
From egocentrism to cooperativeness
Kohlberg developed this further Jean Piaget Transcendental Morality: a POSSIBLE stage, links religion with moral reasoning, ones see oneself as a part of a larger whole and humanity as only part of a larger cosmic structure.
Agape- a nonexclusive love and acceptance of the cosmos and one’s place in it. 7th stage? Studied both males and females, unlike Kohlberg
Care perspective-males drop this
Criticized for work being more of an art instead of a science
Small sample sizes, and has yet to be replicated
Stereotypical to women Carol Gilligan disciplined mind, synthesizing mind, creating mind, respectful mind, and an ethical mind.
Need the ability to focus and learn a field of study, integrate diverse ideas into a coherent whole, recognize and solve problems, form and maintain good relationships with other people, and fulfill one’s responsibilities as a citizen and to identify with fellow human beings. Workers need 5 types of cognitive capabilities: Leaders need to promote ethical administrators, reward morally courageous behavior, provide clear and power organization policies that emphasize worthwhile goals and honest means. How to be a leader… Administrative indifference toward integrity
Ignoring obvious ethical problems and creating
Hypocrisy and fear dominated culture
Leading to the survival of the fittest approach by individual employees –do whatever to protect themselves Corruption Continuum: how organizations become corrupt Leadership – assumption stands that if leaders are honest, ethical and caring, there is a good chance that those who work for them will also be ethical. Leadership and the Ethical Organization Create an environment that is conducive to dignified treatment on the job
Increase ethical awareness among the ranks through formal and informal socialization
Avoid deception and manipulation in the way officers are assigned, rewarded, or promoted.
Allow for openness and the free flow of unclassified information.
Foster a sense of shared values and incorporate such values in the subculture of the agency.
Demonstrate and obligation of honesty, fairness, and decency by example.
Discuss the issue of corruption publicly, expose corrupt behavior, and reward ethical behavior. Steps: Administrators and managers do not necessarily ensure that an organization will be free from corruption merely by not engaging in corrupt practices themselves; they must take affirmative steps to encourage ethical acts. For an organization to be excellent and succeed in the future individuals in the organization must be more than intelligent and educated, they must be ethical. Organizations and ethics… ‘We might think that provided you did the right thing it did not matter how or why you did it; whether you did it willingly or unwillingly, sulkily or cheerfully, through fear of public opinion or for its own sake. But the truth is that the right actions done for the wrong reason do not help to build the internal quality or character called a ‘virtue’ and it is this quality or character that really matters’. C.S. Lewis A leader is both a realistic idealist and an idealistic realist. They have capacity for good leaders to understand social realities, but to avoid cynicism in the face of such social realities. Leaders never lose sight of the mission-public service. A strong ethical leader would have a personal relationship with subordinates-without showing favoritism. A strong leader is someone who is connected with others but also has a larger vision of goals and missions. Concern for one’s public image may be shared by ethical leaders and egoistic bureaucrats, but the first group has a sincere desire to understand the public’s complaints and respond to them while the other is concerned solely with protecting the image of the organization. Scenario 10 Individual follows the speed limit because it is illegal to do otherwise. Scenario 9 Young child plays with his sister so that his parents would be proud, even though he does not want to. Scenario 7 Child does not talk in church to get a sucker that was promised if she remained quiet. Scenario 6 Individual believes it is her duty to vote in elections. Scenario 4 Individual volunteers at church, because it is the right thing to do. Scenario 3 Individual refuses to pay income taxes because he does not believe it is fair. Scenario 1 Young girl does not steal, so friends do not see her as a thief. Rules/ Tips for winning Identify what stage the given scenario is. (1-6)
Have group consensus.
Each stage may be used only once or more than once.
There are only 10. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Stages of Development Game Please get into groups of 4-6 people
There will be a prize for the winners. Answers…. 1. stage 3 6. stage 5
2. stage 1 7. stage 2
3. stage 5 8. stage 4
4. stage 5 9. stage 3
5. stage 6 10. stage 4 Scenario 8 Individual chooses not to smoke because they are not 18 and that is illegal. Scenario 5 Individual refuses to follow any law that results in inequality of others. Scenario 2 Child picks up toys so he will not have to go to bed early. Break Time! Sources 000ERAZ3R000. “Equilibrium Official Trailer HQ.” Online video clip. YouTube. Youtube, 14 Dec.
2009. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.
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2012. Web. 3 Jan. 2013.
jistaff. “Michael Josephson Speaks to Police Chiefs- Los Angeles, July 2009.” Online video clip.
YouTube. Youtube, 13 Oct. 2009. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.
theHeat9. “Men’s and Women’s Brains.” Online video clip. YouTube. Youtube, 17 May 2008. Web.
3 Jan. 2013.
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Youtube, 21 July 2010. Web. 1 Jan. 2013. (Youtube videos)