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Chapter 23 Section 2
Transcript of Chapter 23 Section 2
A Series of Reforms
-Parliament started passing laws ending the harsh working conditions.
-1842- mine owners were forbidden to employ women or children under 10.
Instability in Ireland
-In the 1600's, English and Scottish settlers colonized Ireland.
-Irish never accepted British rule.
-Bitterly resented absentee landlords.
-Resistance and rebellion were common.
Victories for the Working Class
The Growth of Labor Unions
- Labor unions were outlawed in the early Industrial Revolution.
-trade unions made legal in 1825.
-Unions spread despite restrictions and gradually won additional rights.
-Late 1800's,early 1900's, both political parties made social reforms that benefited the working class
-Disraeli sponsored laws to improve public health and housing for workers.
-Under Gladstone, an education act made elementary education free for all children.
-Gladstone pushed for government jobs to be granted by merit, birth or wealth.
Free Trade and Corn Laws
-Debate over corn laws, which imposed high tariffs on imported grain
-Farmers and wealthy landowners supported Corn Laws because they kept price of british grain high.
-Free traders wanted Parliament to repeal them.
-They finally did in 1846 after widespread crop failures in Europe.
- Liberals called the repeal a victory for free trade and laissez-faire.
Campaign Against Slavery
-Under pressure from middle-class reformers in Britain, France and and US, the campaign against slavery began.
-Britain first to abolish slavery.
-Banning slave trade didn't end slavery.
-Liberals preached the immorality of slavery.
-In 1833, Parliament passed a law banning slavery in all British colonies.
Crime and Punishment
Improving Working Conditions
-Early 1800's: 200 crimes were punishable by death.
-Some juries refused to convict criminals because the punishments were so harsh.
-Reformers began to reduce the number of capital offenses.
-Petty criminals were transported to settlements for convicts in new British territory of Australia.
- A socialist organization founded in 1883.
-Promoted gradual change through legal means not violence.
-Small in number.
-Had strong influence on British politics.
The Struggle to Win Votes for Women
-not all women supported the suffrage.
-even women who supported it were split on how to achieve it.
- Suffrage leader Emmeline Pankhurst believed aggressive tactics would be the only way to become victorious..
-Collected petitions and organized public demonstrations.
-When these peaceful attempts didn't work, they turned towards violence.
- Smashed windows, burned buildings.
Victory at Last
- Eventually even middle-class women who were against the violent tactics suffragists has turned to, the were still demanding votes for women.
-Not until 1918 did Parliament grant women the right to vote, but only women over age 30.
- nationalists leader Daniel O'Connell organized an Irish Catholic League.
held mass meetings to repeal unfair laws
-Britain moved to improve conditions in Ireland under pressure from O'Connell and other Irish nationalists.
-1892- Parliament passed Catholic Emancipation Act which allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office.
-Absentee landlords could still evict tenants almost at will.
-British laws forbade teaching and speaking Irish.
Struggle for Home Rule
-Famine in Ireland left Irish with distrust towards Britain.
Irish militants organized Fenian Brotherhood.
leader Charles Stewart rallied Irish members of Parliament to push for
local self government.
- Prime Minister Gladstone pushed for reforms in Ireland.
-He ended use of Irish tithe money to support Anglican church and tried to ease hardships of Irish tenant farmers.
-New laws prevented landlords from charging unfair rents.
-In 1914 Parliament passed home rule bill.
Liberate Ireland from British rule by force.