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PSYA4 - Addiction - TPB
Transcript of PSYA4 - Addiction - TPB
Apply evaluation issues to the theory of planned behaviour
Be able to name the components that make the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
Understand research that supports the TPB
Changing or preventing risky or unhealthy behaviour has become a major concern of health professionals and Governments.
One way to approach change or prevention is to consider factors that contribute to a person’s intention to change an unhealthy behaviour.
Any model must consider how that intention might be transformed into an actual behaviour.
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Perceived Behavioural Control
TPB as a model for addiction prevention
The TPB can be used not only to explain the processes that lead to addiction but also as a way to understand prevention and treatment.
It can be used to help develop appropriate programmes to bring about long-lasting changes in addiction behaviour.
Adolescent lottery & Scratch card Players
Key AO2 Research - Woods & Griffiths (2004)
Godin et al (2006) examined the extent TPB could
explain smoking intentions and behaviours.
Data was collected using questionnaires and trained interviewers.
Participant’s surveyed at start of study and 6 months later.
Researchers found the 3 elements helped to explain intentions, whereas only perceived behavioural control was the most important predictor of ultimate human behaviour, as predicted by the model.
Researchers concluded that prevention programmes should help smokers to focus on the will-power required to give up smoking and also alert smokers to the effort that is required to modify smoking behaviour.
Perceived behavioural control
Self Efficacy - a person's belief in their own competenc
Personal View - The individuals attitude towards the behaviour (i.e how desirable it seems to be)
Social Influence - What they think significant others feel is the right thing to do as well as perceptions of what other people are actually doing.
Perceived Behavioural control is assumed to act either on the intention to behave in a particular way, or directly on the behaviour itself. This is because;
a, The more control someone believes they have over the behaviour the stronger their intention to actually perform that behaviour will be.
b. An individual with higher perceived behavioural control is likely to try harder and to persevere for longer than someone with low perceived behavioural control.
Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajen 1989)
Intention is a function of three factors
1. My attitude towards the behaviour
2. Perception of social pressures/or subjective norms
3. Perceived behavioural control (or self efficacy) - Strength of your belief or conviction that you carry out the behaviour.
Influence of attitudes examined using the TPB
Attitudes made up of personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control.
1195 participants used & were related to gambling behaviour.
Most particpants were opposed to gambling 'in theory'
Was a correlation between having a positive attitude to the lottery and playing/buying cards (personal beliefs)
There was a strong positive correlation between parents gambling behaviour and child's gambling (subjective norms)
Most had scratch cards brought by family members for them (control/efficacy)
According to the theory, an individuals decision to engage in a behaviour (to take drugs) can be directly predicted by their intention to engage in that behavoiur
What I think
What other people think
Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1989)
As part of Perceived Behavioural Control, the TPB proposes that intentions to change behaviour will be stronger in people who have an increased sense of control.
Such self efficacy has been shown to be important in many aspects of addiction prevention such as relapse prevention programmes.
Most Health education programmes aimed at pre teens are based on developing Self Efficacy (Just say no, DARE etc)
Key element is establishing how much control a person feels/believes they have over their health
Also important to develop a sense of control in quitting
Evaluation of the theory
Changing Behavioural Attitude
2005 US drug campaign - Success was based on its influence of attitudes
Previous campaigns has centred around the risk of abuses (Teenagers are risk avoidant)
Above the influence
Changing Subjective Norms
(What they think others think, perceptions of what others are doing)
Anti drug campaigns often give adolescents 'actual data' about the number of people engaging in risky behaviour (done in order to change subjective norms)
By having accurate statistics in the ad it should correct subjective norms
* Adolescents whose peers all smoke
* Adolescents whose parents all smoke
Wilson & Kolander (2003)
supports this...... (make of note of how in your handout)
One several cognitive theories about the factors that lead to a persons decision to engage in a particular behaviour
and an appraisal of the value of these consequences (i/e whether they will be good or bad)
A product of personal views; the individual's attitude toward the behaviour (how desirable it seems to be)
This attitude is formed on the basis of beliefs about the consequences of performing that behaviour (e.g. I will feel good; i will get my life back together)
A product of social influence
The individuals subjective awareness of social norms relating to that particular behaviour
i.e not simply social norms but the individuals own beliefs about what we think significant others feel is the right thing to do as well as perceptions of what other people are actually doing.
It tried to create a different attitude toward the effect of marijuana use, namely that it is inconsistant with being autonomous and achieving aspirations.
acting or able to act in accordance with rules and principles of one's own choosing
Read the evaluation points included in your handout and in the dog book
You need to be able to talk about research support as AO2
Application to exam questions
Application of research on TPB as a method of prevention
Question 3 in your boooklet - AO1 part only
1. Refer to Question A model answer on P149 in the puppy book
Look at the structure - Copy it out if you need then try to write your own answer for perceived behaviour control
2. Refer to the Mark scheme - What can you learn from it?
1. Read the scripts (really poor)
WHERE ARE THE HOOKS/STEMS?
3. What did the examiners say about this question?
Section B of handbook
Evaluation question in your handout
Now refer to the application questions in your handout