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Arab-Israel Conflict Pre-1939

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Razi s

on 29 April 2010

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Transcript of Arab-Israel Conflict Pre-1939

Pre-Mandate Jews Arabs The Jews of Palestine thought that it would be in their best interest to work closely with the British Created the World Zionist Organization, headquartered in London, to help them reach their goals Formed a defense organization called the Hagana to protect settlers Started building schools and developing the education system, including the Hebrew University at Mount Scopus But not all Jews felt the same way. There were many differences about ideology, relations with the Arabs, and how much they should cooperate with the authorities. Arabs strongly opposed the mandate and Zionism To them, the Balfour declaration was encouraging to the Jews and threatening to Arab sovereignty. Arabs formed no organizational body. Arabs completely lacked any political unity, even within cities such as Jerusalem. Within Jerusalem, competition between the Husseini and Nashashibi families lead to inner conflict Land Registry Reopened by the British in 1920, Jews began buying land from British conquerors and Arab landowners Zionist purchases from Arabs were facilitated by the chaotic land ownership system set up by the Ottomans Almost all sales of land were made by absentee land-owners, who inherited the land and lived abroad, and city merchants Zionist agencies bought land for the Jewish people as a whole Most Ottoman land acquired by these agencies were turned into kibbutzim As the mandate arrangements of 1921 were worked out, Arab sentiment began to turn against the British and Jews White Papers 1922 1930 1939 Peel Report Large Arab riots in the early 1920's led to Sir Thomas Haycrafy heading a commission of inquiry into the situation in Palestine. The paper reaffirmed British commitment to the Jewish national home It declared that the Jews were in Palestine "as a right and not on sufferance" and defined the Jewish national home as "the further development of the existing Jewish community". The violence of the 1936 Arab Revolt led Britain to set up a new Royal Commission (the Peel Commission) in to examine the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. The Peel Commission found the underlying cause of the Arab revolt to be the desire of the Arabs for national independence and their hatred and fear of the establishment of a National Jewish Home. The Commission recommended freezing Jewish immigration at 12,000 per year for five years and that a plan for partition of the land be developed. The Passfield White Paper was published after studies ordered following the 1929 Arab riots. It was rather anti-Zionist, and claimed that the land was not arable enough to support a large population. They decided to recommend limits on Jewish immigration and land ownership The paper "espoused the theory of an equal obligation under the Mandate to the Jews and the Arabs and denied that the clauses designed to safeguard the rights of the non-Jewish communities were merely secondary conditions qualifying the provisions which called for the establishment of the National Home." Jewish organizations mounted a major campaign against the White Paper, trying to get it discredited. This paper abandoned the Peel Commission Report of 1937 in favour of creating an independent Palestine governed by Palestinian Arabs and Jews in proportion to their numbers in the population by 1949 They set quotas for Jewish immigration The restrictions on Jewish immigration effectively closed Palestine Reversed British policy in Palestine over the past twenty years. Sales of land to Jews was strongly restricted. Pissed off Jews. English began to lose control of Palestine, war continued between Jewish and Arab communities. As the conflict flared up in the Palestinian region, the two communities began to diverge more and more, because of economic and social differences. Jewish and Palestinian Arab nationalisms were too intense and too antagonistic for this plan to succeed. The Jews reacted very hostily to the 1939 White Paper, as it had a rather anti-Zionist lean to it. Thank you. Razi Shaban Warren Beecroft Hasan Al-Baddad
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